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Everything posted by Synopsis

  1. Great to see you, too, PokerPlayer! Hope all is well. Had a Great Thanksgiving. Thankful for all my Canadian friends. Sorry, I can't have them all delivered a hot Tim's. eh? Go Moola Nova!
  2. I really appreciate all you have done for us, Adam! I trust you enjoyed the tryptophan as most of us did!!! I have always appreicated your very balanced perspectives on the Bicraqi Iraqi Dinar. Pretty sure the ReValue/ReInstatement will take us all by surprise so remain hopeful for all the reasons noted and more! Go Moola Nova!
  3. Yeah, I still have a boat load of things I am working on. I saw this headline and felt a need to post it since the propaganda machine has been so heavy and will likely get heavier. ALL THE VERY BEST!!! eh?
  4. Degrees in WHAT, pray tell???!!! Regardless of YOUR, BigWave's, "degrees", YOU, BigWave, are OBVIOUSLY LYING by saying the Earth is Flat. I have been fortunate enough to find people (albeit VERY FEW) in the last few months who have interacted with Flat Earth "adherents". The common take away is Flat Earth "proponents" are LYING AND INTEND TO DECEIVE.
  5. The video can be accessed through the link. Some questions to ask: Isn't the COVID vaccinations to date an end all to COVID vaccinations? Doesn't one round of COVID vaccinations kill ALL current and future COVID variants? Who is paying for all the "free" COVID vaccines? WHY, pray tell, an indication FUTURE COVID (or other) vaccinations (COVID booster or otherwise) will need to be administered? WHY, pray tell, are non COVID vaccinated persons being encouraged or required to wear the (criminally indicating) mask? I suspected this future contagion season, maybe starting as early as September in some regions of the US, will be another session of fear mongering where all the Kool Aid drinkers will be up in arms about "the race for the cure" AND "target NON COVID vaccinated individuals EVEN THOSE WHO HAVE HAD COVID AND FULLY RECOVERED WITHOUT BEING VACCINATED AGAINST COVID. My concern is the immune system compromised having taken the COVID vaccination(s) will suffer the greatest harm. These people may need to undergo non COVID related vaccinations for other contagions their bodies would have successfully combated if they had NOT taken ANY COVID vaccination. The real indicator will be about a year from now after this coming Fall and next Spring contagion seasons to indicate overall population immune system integrity with and without the COVID vaccinations. I had COVID both in January of 2020 and this past March of 2021. Hey, I am still here having NOT been COVID vaccinated while now having the natural immune system antibodies to fight future exposure AND NO lingering effects. I suspect the March of 2021 bout with COVID was with the Delta COVID variant. This one was somewhat milder than the early strain I had in January of 2020. DO NOT DRINK THE COVID VACCINATION KOOL AID!!!
  6. What ALWAYS amazes me is the COMPLETE STUPIDITY of denial of ACTUAL physical phenomena by the STUPID Flat Earth "adherents". Light refraction is REAL and is relevant to excluding STUPID Flat Earth "postulations". Flat Earth "adherents": Lie OBVIOUSLY. Deny TRUTH. Deny Gravity is REAL. Deny Light Refraction is REAL. Deny the Sun RISES AND SETS. Deny the Earth's atmosphere is dynamic and travels at nominally the same angular velocity of the Earth of ONE (1) rotation per day WHICH IS FOUR (4) minutes off time PER ONE (1) degree of rotation. Use "doctored" "documentation" TO "promote" THEIR "theory". Are REALLY, REALLY STUPID. AND so THEE STUPID Flat Earth "adherents" "promote" THEIR FALSE DOCTRINE. Flat Earth "adherents" "desire" A "forum" TO "debate" THEIR STUPIDITY. WHEREAS Flat Earth "adherents" OBVIOUSLY DEMONSTRATE THEIR HATRED OF TRUTH AND DENIAL OF OBVIOUS PHYSICAL PHENOMENA.
  7. a·poc·a·lypse /əˈpäkəˌlips/ Learn to pronounce noun 1. the complete final destruction of the world, as described in the biblical book of Revelation. "the bell's ringing is supposed to usher in the Apocalypse" 2. an event involving destruction or damage on an awesome or catastrophic scale. "a stock market apocalypse" Conclusion: Whether ‘home-made’ or ‘foreign’, vaccine-resistant variants are highly likely to cause more (severe) disease in vaccinated as compared to non-vaccinated subjects. This is because the latter may still dispose upon a fully functional arsenal of CoV-nonspecific Abs provided they are seronegative for CoV-derived S protein. As a result, vaccinees will soon constitute the predominant source of Sars-CoV-2 infection and cause a dramatic surge in viral infectious pressure. As pre-symptomatic vaccinees will increasingly serve as a reservoir for Sars-CoV-2 infection, non-vaccinated persons should refrain from mixing with vaccinees. As patients with severe Covid-19 disease need hospitalization, circulation of vaccine-resistant variants is not only going to overwhelm the health care system but also pose a tremendous risk to all health care workers as the vast majority of them have already been vaccinated. Consequently, health care workers as well will be much more susceptible to contracting Covid-19 disease caused by vaccine-resistant variants. A sorry state of affairs come Octoberd/November 2021 when the next contagion season starts. Sure, a fraction of the population will be severely affected at the onset with others to follow as time progresses that have received the SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccine. Mass Pandamonium in the making. pan·de·mo·ni·um /ˌpandəˈmōnēəm/ Learn to pronounce noun wild and noisy disorder or confusion; uproar. "pandemonium broke out" WHAT, pray tell, will THEE "vaccinated" "do"???!!! Beyond THEE OBVIOUS, "Dude, yer SCREWED" THEE "outcry" WILL BE for ALL "others" TO BE FORCED INTO THEE SAME "fate" OF "serial" "vaccinations". NOT me. COME AND TAKE IT!!! Personal Health supercedes MASS mRNA "vaccination" STUPIDITY!!! I project a couple things (ONE MAN'S OPINION): "New" infectious AND contagious strains will be promulgated as the new cause for action mantra in the Whirled Wide IDIOT News Media. The lies will become bigger and bolder since the Bleeple Sheeple succumbed to the previous lie and responded accordingly by WILLINGLY becoming vaccinated with the mRNA vaccine. By year end 2021, a new propaganda campaign will be in full swing to target critical thinking and acting groups and individuals criminalizing non adherents LIKELY termed as "non" "vaxers". THEE "useful" "idiots" WILL DEMAND "compliance" AND OPENLY HARRASS AND OTHERWISE CAUSE PHYSICAL DISTRESS TO critically thinking and acting groups and individuals. Are YOU LOCKED AND LOADED???!!! Without a doubt, IT is COMING!!!
  8. I would suggest caution in your estimation in who is abusive, LadyGrace'sDaddy. In light of OBVIOUS facts and the supporting documentation, YOU, LadyGrace'sDaddy, are CLEARLY the ABUSER. Misrepresenting facts then CLAIMING someone else is abusive is UNDENIABLY unacceptable. Taking a stand for what is right AND for those who adhere to TRUTH is NOT abusive REGARDLESS of the "contestants' while YOU, LadyGrace'sDaddy, chose to be A "contestant" of TRUTH. So, OK, BAN me for FACTUALLY acknowledging the Earth is SPHERICAL (geoidal) in shape AND/OR Socialism / Communism / Fascism / Nazism / Leftist / Liberal / Progressive is antithetical to True The United States Of America Patriotism. NEITHER of the positions noted by ANY "contestant" is acceptable. This is NOT an idle declaration. Get me banned for noted behavior OR SHUT UP, PAL. Eradicating critical thinking is NOT a panacea in ANY respect for TRUTHFUL observation AND application REGARDLESS of the "contestants". So, banning me OR RESTRICTING me in ANY way FOR, FACTUAL critical thinking in ANY respect for TRUTHFUL observation AND application is very telling of the Administrators, Staff, AND Moderators AND affiliation. After all, WHO, pray tell, would want to be part of an affiliation who DESPISES TRUTH AND Critical Thinking???!!! Critical Thinking would note Flat Earth "beliefs" AND Socialism / Communism / Fascism / Nazism / Leftist / Liberal / Progressive "philosophies" as UNACCEPTABLE. SEMPER FI DO OR DIE. I EXPECT an IMMEDIATE action. UNDERSTOOD, PAL???!!!
  9. YOU, sidestepped AND missed the whole point HERE: 1 Timothy 1:3-7 New International Version Timothy Charged to Oppose False Teachers 3 As I urged you when I went into Macedonia, stay there in Ephesus so that you may command certain people not to teach false doctrines any longer 4 or to devote themselves to myths and endless genealogies. Such things promote controversial speculations rather than advancing God’s work—which is by faith. 5 The goal of this command is love, which comes from a pure heart and a good conscience and a sincere faith. 6 Some have departed from these and have turned to meaningless talk. 7 They want to be teachers of the law, but they do not know what they are talking about or what they so confidently affirm. First, it is for the poor souls who are entrapped by the LIE of a Flat Earth. Second, it is for the poor souls who find themselves "contested" by Flat Earth "believers' in the LIE the Earth is Flat AND declared by the Flat Earth "believers" to be deceived AND part of a Luciferian scheme of a SPHERICAL (geoidal) Earth while the Earth IS ACTUALLY SPHERICAL (geoidal) in shape NOT Luciferian in nature SINCE God The Son Jesus Christ CREATED THE Earth THAT WAY. Colossians 1:15-17 New International Version The Supremacy of the Son of God 15 The Son is the image of the invisible God, the firstborn over all creation. 16 For in him all things were created: things in heaven and on earth, visible and invisible, whether thrones or powers or rulers or authorities; all things have been created through him and for him. 17 He is before all things, and in him all things hold together. Thirdly, it is for the poor souls who have not received God The Son Jesus Christ as THEIR sole means of salvation due to the shed blood of God The Son Jesus Christ on the cross who was crucified to death and was resurrected to life due to Flat Earth "believers" LYING by saying the Earth is Flat. The line is crossed when people make mention of a SPHERICAL (geoidal) Earth as a Luciferian scheme while the Earth IS ACTUALLY SPHERICAL (geoidal) in shape. People (especially young people) MUST NOT BE IN ANY WAY LABELED AS PART OF A LUCIFERIAN SCHEME FOR TRUTHFULLY BELIEVING THE Earth IS ACTUALLY SPHERICAL (geoidal) IN SHAPE WHILE BEING LIED TO THE BIBLE EVEN INFERS THE Earth IS Flat (Earth IS Flat IS Biblical FALSE Doctrine). I can understand YOU, LadyGrace'sDaddy (and other Flat Earth "believers"), do NOT "feel" the love in what I am saying while it is THERE. NO DOUBT ABOUT IT. IF, I did NOT care, I would NOT say anything. Flat Earth "believers" are ENTIRELY unwilling to acknowledge the ACTUAL physical principles THEY experience WHILE viewing the SPHERICAL (geoidal) Earth BY SIMPLE OBSERVATION. On a SLIGHTLY more complex scale, current technologies (even the Starry Night software) DEMONSTRATE IRREFUTABLE PROOF THE Earth IS SPHERICAL (geoidal) IN SHAPE. So, AGAIN, WHY, pray tell, the OBVIOUS LIES THE Earth IS Flat???!!! The Earth being SPHERICAL (geoidal) in shape is IRREFUTABLE AND CONCLUSIVELY PROVEN BY EVEN THE MOST INTUITIVELY OBVIOUS OF THE MOST CASUAL OBSERVERS.
  10. James 4:17 New International Version 17 If anyone, then, knows the good they ought to do and doesn’t do it, it is sin for them. Proverbs 25:26 New International Version 26 Like a muddied spring or a polluted well are the righteous who give way to the wicked. When something isn't quite right AND the person KNOWING something isn't quite right does NOT address the situation or issue THEN: Lack of addressing becomes tolerance. Tolerance is viewed by others as acceptance. Acceptance is perceived by others to be support. Support is required by others to be applied when necessary. Application is demanded by others at ALL times in ALL ways WITHOUT contest OR thinking. THUS slaves are created. So, then, WHAT, pray tell???!!! Personal Acknowledgement, Personal Responsibility, AND Personal Ownership. Let's define these. Personal Acknowledgement: ACTUAL facts in the matter. ACTUAL principles related to the matter. TRUTH at ALL times. Personal Responsibility: Application of Personal Acknowledgement. Acceptance of external influences relevant to Personal Acknowledgement. Encouragement and support to external entities operating under Personal Acknowledgement. Personal Ownership: Ownership of one's body. Ownership of one's mind. Ownership of one's skills and talents. Ownership of one's time. Ownership of Personal Acknowledgement and the benefits or consequences thereof. Ownership of Personal Responsibility and the benefits or consequences thereof. Ownership of one's information. Ownership of one's possessions. Ownership of one's land. The MOST sustainable of these is based on the Four (4) Textual Cornerstones: The Bible. The Constitution Of The United States Of America TO INCLUDE The Ratified Bill Of Rights / Declaration Of Independence / Federalist Papers. Blackstone English Common Law (stripped of the Crown Entity obligations). Magna Carta. So, a personal view and application of the above is partially summarized by what I shared earlier: Here are some things I came up with fifteen years ago of my own volition. Maybe not original but my own estimation of values. The heart of the nation is the center four (Equal Justice, Constitution, Free Thinking/Responsible Individuals, and Allegiance). The soul of the nation is the center top two and center bottom two (Personal Ownership, Territory, Security/Technology, and Military) The conscience of the nation is the middle two on the left and the middle two on the right (Blackstone, U.S. Constitution, Judiciary, and Law Enforcement). The strength of the nation is the four corners (Magna Carte, The Bible, Executive/Legislative, and Unique Economy). There are relationships between the Physical and Foundation such as the Executive/Legislative and Military, Territory and Security/Technology, Personal Ownership and The Bible, Magna Carte and Unique Economy and others. Each of the items in the matrix here have their unique and definitive definition that for brevity I will not include here. I only post for viewing and consideration. Here is a diagram of the balance of necessary items: Any one of these spheres of influence left to themselves is highly problematic. The balance of them all would suggest the most necessary form of government is the County Government. More can be said about the health and integrity of any community by what happens on the County Fair Grounds year around with the types and amounts of activities relevant to the community while still having exposure to the County Government elected and appointed individuals so that Government is of the people, by the people, and (notably) for the people. Here is the culmination of the aspirations of We the People and making the best use of the God Given Reason and Common Sense to avert enslavement of any sort. Personal Responsibility begins with the person the the nuclear family (one man married to one woman with associated minors), extended family, church, community, and (lastly) the County without State or Federal interference. The Functional Sphere is anything physical necessary to conduct one's affairs apart from external impositions. As such, Personal Ownership is key while Government only apportions Appropriate Taxation with Moral constraints. Willful Freedoms are a balance between the Functional and Moral Spheres with limited framework provided by the Government. Lastly, the Moral Sphere is the Church (Body Of Jesus Christ) that provides the Basis for Principled Governance so that the Government can provide Laws and Policy only where necessary. In light of ACTUAL facts in THIS and ALL matters: Appropriate Principle ABOVE ALL People. ALWAYS. If anyone is above the Principle, the People are abused. If the Principle undermines the People, the People are also abused and the Principle IS NOT Appropriate. - Synopsis In light of Deconstructionists, THERE IS NO OTHER OPTION TO TAKE A STAND AND REVEAL TO THEM THEN STAND AGAINST THEIR InAppropriate Principle(s). THIS Great Nation AND the peace of We The People THEREWITH depends on True The United States Of America Patriots STANDING AGAINST THE Deconstructionists WHETHER THEY BE Flat Earth "believers" AND/OR Socialist / Communist / Fascist / Nazist / Leftist / Liberal / Progressive AND/OR JUST PLAIN STUPID. Well, of course, STUPIDITY in ANY form MUST NOT "rule". EVER. OTHERWISE, one AND ALL become SLAVES to STUPIDITY. My biological father AND paterfamilias is an HONORABLY DISCHARGED The United States Of America Marine. I never served in The United States Of America Marine Corps. HOWEVER, I was "regularly' "drilled" by an HONORABLY DISCHARGED The United States Of America Marine being my biological father AND paterfamilias. One of the "regular" "drills" was, "THINK ABOUT THE NEXT GUY THAT HAS TO USE THAT!!!". In light of, "THINK ABOUT THE NEXT GUY THAT HAS TO USE THAT!!!", yeah, as a True The United States Of America Patriot, I consider the graves of those who SERVED AND DIED AND WHY THEY SERVED AND DIED AS True The United States Of America Patriots. THEY paid it forward. SO MUST I AT ANY COST REGARDLESS OF THE STUPIDITY OF THE "contestants" TO PAY IT FORWARD FOR OTHERS AND MY Descendants. I shudder to think of the STUPIDITY the NEXT generation will have to deal with ALONG WITH THE FALLOUT of the STUPID Flat Earth "believers" AND/OR Socialist / Communist / Fascist / Nazist / Leftist / Liberal / Progressive "adherents. So, NO, as a True The United States Of America Patriot, I will NOT allow STUPIDITY to "rule". NOPE. NOT ME.
  11. LadyGrace'sDaddy, YOUR comments are SO STUPID HERE. Due to the Earth ACTUALLY being SPHERICAL (geoidal) in shape AND Global Positioning Satellites orbiting the SPHERICAL (geoidal) Earth, NOT ALL Global Positioning Satellites will be able to feed the Global Positioning Satellite device since MANY of the Global Positioning Satellites will be orbiting AND below the horizon of the SPHERICAL (geoidal) shaped Earth. In a Flat Earth model, ALL Global Positioning Satellites will feed the Global Positioning Satellite device AT THE SAME TIME. Since ALL Global Positioning Satellites do NOT feed the Global Positioning Satellite device at THE SAME TIME, the Earth can NOT be Flat but SPHERICAL (geoidal) in shape. So, AGAIN, LadyGrace'sDaddy, WHY, pray tell, ALL THE LIES of a Flat Earth???!!!
  12. For starters, it is ASTONOMY NOT Astrology. What IS Luciferian is a Flat Earth. Flat Earth "proponents" are promoting a Luciferian philosophy that the Earth is Flat. Flat Earth "postulations" are STUPID and hold NO WATER. The sun rises AND sets as a SPHERICAL (geoidal) Earth DEMONSTRATES. The sun does NOT "appear" AND "disappear" in the sky as the Flat Earth Model shows. So now you, LadyGrace'sDaddy, are a liberal or blinded by a demon so powerful that you don't even realize the sinful nature of your statements here. Which is it? Well, it IS clear. LadyGrace'sDaddy IS: Liberal. Blinded by a demon so powerful LadyGrade'sDaddy doesn't even realize------- LadyGrace'sDaddy's sinful nature of LadyGrace'sDaddy's statements HERE. We ALL know, LadyGrace'sDaddy, the Earth IS SPHERICAL (geoidal) in shape by PERSONAL OBSERVATION AND BY MATHMATICAL MODELS. Starry Night is a very accurate computer model to show where the celestial bodies are located, were located, and will be located. ALL BASED ON A SPHERICAL (geoidal) Earth SINCE THE USER NOTES THE POINT OF VIEW BY THE LOCATION ON A SPHERICAL (geoidal) Earth. ATRONOMY NOT ASTROLOGY. So, again, WHY, pray tell, THE LIES, LadyGrace'sDaddy, of a Flat Earth???!!! Here is an ASTONOMY/Astrophysicist who brings out some relevant points. Did YOU, LadyGrace'sDaddy, catch them? Look at the 3:21 to 8:03 section. What he is describing is a key REASON WE DO NOT LIE TO PEOPLE ABOUT A Flat Earth. The Bible does NOT describe the Earth as Flat. NEVER does the Bible describe the Earth as Flat. Saying the Earth is Flat LIES to people. HOW, pray tell, are THEY going to know the ACTUAL TRUTH of the Bible IF one claiming to be a Christian says the Earth is Flat since the Earth is NOT Flat???!!! STOP LYING the Earth is Flat, LadyGrace'sDaddy, since YOU, LadyGrace'sDaddy, are a Luciferian tool to turn people AWAY from the TRUTH of the Bible by saying the Earth is Flat (since the Earth is ACTUALLY SPHERICAL (geoidal) in shape), AND God told YOU, LadyGrace'sDaddy, the Earth is Flat (since HE did NOT), AND the Bible says the Earth is Flat (the Bible does NOT say the Earth is Flat).
  13. A friend sent this to me. I really enjoyed listening. Maybe some will here, too.
  14. POWZERS!!! JG1!!! THAT is WHY, prayed AND told, PANCAKES ARE FLAT, TOO!!! PANCAKES CAN ONLY BE MADE ON A FLAT EARTH OTHERWISE THE PANCAKES WOULD BE SPHERICAL (geoidal) IN SHAPE!!! er, as SOME "counter" "intelligent" "posters" "believe"!!!
  16. EVERY view of the earth shows a CURVED SPHERICAL Earth. At the altitude noted, OF COURSE the pilot could see ALL he described on a SPHERICAL (geoidal) Earth. As a side note, my biological father AND paterfamilias had his Cessna 175 avionics changed out with modern (at THAT time) Global Positioning System avionics. GPS is NOT possible for a Flat Earth. Flat Earth is STUPID. Yep. NO doubt about it.
  18. 10 easy ways you can tell for yourself that the Earth is not flat The evidence is right in front of you. BY MORIEL SCHOTTLENDER JANUARY 26, 2016 SPACE NASA/SAMANTHA CRISTOFORETTI SHARE This story was originally published on Smarter Than That in 2008. We are republishing a lightly edited version on Popular Science in light of recent interest in the subject. Humanity has known Earth is round for a few millenia, and I’ve been meaning to show more methods that prove the world is not flat. I’ve had a few ideas on how to do that, but recently got an interesting incentive, when Phil Plait, The Bad Astronomer, wrote about a recently published BBC article about “The Flat Earth” society. (Most recently, rapper B.o.B. went on a Twitter rant on the topic.) Phil claims it’s ridiculous to even bother rebutting the Flat Earth Society—and I tend to agree. But the history of our species’ intellectual pursuit is important and interesting. You don’t need to denounce all science and knowledge and believe in a kooky conspiracy theory to enjoy some historical factoids about humanity’s quest for space. Earth From The ISS The curvature of the Earth is visible in this 2014 photo, which ESA astronaut Samantha Cristoforetti snapped from the International Space Station. On we go, to the top 10 ways to know the Earth is unequivocally, absolutely, positively, 100% not flat! 1. The Moon Now that humanity knows quite positively that the Moon is not a piece of cheese or a playful god, the phenomena that accompany it (from its monthly cycles to lunar eclipses) are well-explained. It was quite a mystery to the ancient Greeks, though, and in their quest for knowledge, they came up with a few insightful observations that helped humanity figure out the shape of our planet. Aristotle (who made quite a lot of observations about the spherical nature of the Earth) noticed that during lunar eclipses (when the Earth’s orbit places it directly between the Sun and the Moon, creating a shadow in the process), the shadow on the Moon’s surface is round. This shadow is the planet’s, and it’s a great clue about the spherical shape of the Earth. Lunar eclipse A sequential view of the lunar eclipse that occurred on April 15, 2014. You can see Earth’s shadow crossing the face of the Moon, and the shadow’s shape is curved because Earth is spherical. Since the earth is rotating (see the “Foucault Pendulum” experiment for a definite proof, if you are doubtful), the consistent oval-shadow it produces in each and every lunar eclipse proves that the earth is not only round but spherical—absolutely, utterly, beyond a shadow of a doubt not flat. 2. Ships and the horizon If you’ve been next to a port lately, or just strolled down a beach and stared off vacantly into the horizon, you might have noticed a very interesting phenomenon: Approaching ships do not just “appear” out of the horizon (like they should have if the world was flat), but rather seem to emerge from beneath the sea. But—you say—ships do not submerge and rise up again as they approach our view (except in Pirates of the Caribbean, but we are hereby assuming that was a fictitious movie series). The reason ships appear as if they “emerge from the waves” is because the world is not flat: It’s round. Ant on an orange What you would see if you watched an ant crawling toward you over a curved surface. Imagine an ant walking along the surface of an orange, into your field of view. If you look at the orange “head on”, you will see the ant’s body slowly rising up from the “horizon” because of the curvature of the orange. If you would do that experiment with the ant approaching along a long road rather than a round object, the effect would change: The ant would slowly “materialize” into view (depending on how sharp your vision is). 3. Varying star constellations This observation was originally made by Aristotle (384-322 BCE), who declared the Earth was round judging from the different constellations one sees while moving away from the equator. On a round planet Stargazing on a round Earth After returning from a trip to Egypt, Aristotle noted, “There are stars seen in Egypt and…Cyprus which are not seen in the northerly regions.” This phenomenon can only be explained if humans were viewing the stars from a round surface, Aristotle continued, claiming that the sphere of the Earth is “of no great size, for otherwise the effect of so slight a change of place would not be quickly apparent.” (De caelo, 298a2-10) The farther you go from the equator, the farther the “known” constellations go towards the horizon, to be replaced by different stars. This would not have happened if the world was flat: On a flat plane Stargazing on a flat Earth 4. Shadows and sticks If you stick a stick in the (sticky) ground, it will produce a shadow. The shadow moves as time passes (which is the principle for ancient Shadow Clocks). If the world had been flat, then two sticks in different locations would produce the same shadow: Stick shadows on a flat Earth Imagine the Sun’s rays (represented by yellow lines) hitting two sticks (white lines) some distance apart. If the Earth were flat, the resulting shadows would be the same length, no matter how far apart you place the sticks. But they don’t. This is because the Earth is round, and not flat: Stick shadows on a round Earth Because the Earth is round, sticks placed at distant locations will throw shadows of different lengths. Eratosthenes (276-194 BCE) used this principle to calculate the circumference of the Earth quite accurately. To see this demonstrated, refer to my experiment video about Eratosthenes and the circumference of the Earth. 5. Seeing farther from higher Standing on a flat plateau, you look ahead toward the horizon. You strain your eyes, then take out your favorite binoculars and stare through them, as far as your eyes (with the help of the binocular lenses) can see. Next, climb up the closest tree—the higher the better, just be careful not to drop those binoculars and break their lenses. Then look again, strain your eyes, and stare through the binoculars out to the horizon. The higher up you climb, the farther you will see. Usually, we tend to relate this to Earthly obstacles—like the fact we have houses or other trees obstructing our vision on the ground, and climbing upwards we have a clear view—but that’s not the true reason. Even if you stood on a completely clear plateau with no obstacles between you and the horizon, you would see much farther from the greater height than you would on the ground. This phenomenon is caused by the curvature of the Earth as well, and would not happen if the Earth was flat: Point of view on a flat Earth How far can you see from a height? On a flat Earth, elevation doesn’t make a difference. Point of view on a round Earth How far can you see from a height? On a round Earth, elevation makes a big difference. 6. Ride a plane If you’ve ever taken a trip out of the country, specifically long-distance trips, you could notice two interesting facts about planes and the Earth: Planes can travel in a relatively straight line for a very long time and not fall off any edges. They can also circle the Earth without stopping. If you look out the window on a trans-Atlantic flight, you can, most of the times, see the curvature of the Earth on the horizon. The best view of the curvature used to be on the Concorde, but that plane’s long gone. I can’t wait to see the pictures from the new plane by Virgin Galactic—the horizon should look absolutely curved, as it actually is from a distance. 7. Look at other planets The Earth is different from other planets, that much is true. After all, we have life, and we haven’t found any other planets with life (yet). However, there are certain characteristics all planets have, and it will be quite logical to assume that if all planets behave a certain way, or show certain characteristics—specifically if those planets are in different places or were created under different circumstances—our planet is the same. In other words: If so many planets that were created in different locations and under different circumstances show the same property, it’s likely that our own planet has the same property as well. All of our observations show that other planets are spherical (and since we know how they’re created, it’s also obvious why they take this shape). Unless we have a very good reason to think otherwise (which we don’t), our planet is very likely the same. In 1610, Galileo Galilei observed the moons of Jupiter rotating around it. He described them as small planets orbiting a larger planet—a description (and observation) that was very difficult for the church to accept, as it challenged a geocentric model where everything was supposed to revolve around the Earth. This observation also showed that the planets (Jupiter, Neptune, and later Venus was observed too) are all spherical, and all orbit the sun. A flat planet (ours or any other planet) would be such an incredible observation that it would pretty much go against everything we know about how planets form and behave. It would not only change everything we know about planet formation, but also about star formation (our sun would have to behave quite differently to accommodate the flat-earth theory) and what we know of speeds and movements in space (like planets’ orbits and the effects of gravity). In short, we don’t just suspect that our planet is spherical. We know it. Popular Science Rated 4.3 out of 5 by 3381 reviewers on Buy Now 8. The existence of time zones The time in New York, at the moment these words are written, is 12:00pm. The sun is in the middle of the sky (though it’s hard to see with the current cloud coverage). In Beijing, it’s 12:00am, midnight, and the sun is nowhere to be found. In Adelaide, Australia, it is 1:30am. More than 13 hours ahead. There, the sunset is long gone—so much so, that the sun will soon rise up again at the beginning of a new day. Time zones We have time zones because when the Sun is illuminating one side of the spherical Earth, the other side is dark. This can only be explained if the world is round, and rotating around its own axis. At a certain point when the sun is shining on one part of the Earth, the opposite side is dark, and vice versa. That allows for time differences and time zones, specifically ones that are larger than 12 hours. Another point concerning timezones, the sun, and Earth: If the sun was a “spotlight” (very directionally located so that light only shines on a specific location) and the world was flat, we would see the sun even if it didn’t shine on top of us (as you can see in the drawing below). Similarly, you can see the light coming out of a spotlight on a stage in the theater, even though you—the crowd—are sitting in the dark. The only way to create two distinctly separate time zones, where there is complete darkness in one while there’s light in the other, is if the world is spherical. The “sun as spotlight” theory The visibility of a spotlight in a darkened theater should debunk the “sun as spotlight” theory. 9. The pull of gravity Here’s an interesting fact about mass: It attracts things to it. The force of attraction (gravity) between two objects depends on their mass and the distance between them. Simply said, gravity will pull toward the center of mass of the objects. To find the center of mass, you have to examine the object. A sphere’s center of mass On a sphere’s surface, gravity will pull you toward the sphere’s center of mass: straight down. Consider a sphere. Since a sphere has a consistent shape, no matter where on it you stand, you have exactly the same amount of sphere under you. (Imagine an ant walking around on a crystal ball. From the insect’s point of view, the only indication of movement would be the fact the ant is moving its feet—the shape of the surface would not change at all.) A sphere’s center of mass is in the center of the sphere, which means gravity will pull anything on the surface of the sphere straight down toward the center of the sphere. This will occur no matter where on the surface the object is located. Consider a flat plane. The center of mass of a flat plane is in its center, so the force of gravity will pull anything on the surface toward the middle of the plane. That means that if you stand on the edge of the plane, gravity will be pulling you sideways toward the plane’s middle, not straight down like you usually experience when you stand on Earth. A plane’s center of mass A plane’s center of mass is in its middle—which means that gravity should pull objects toward the center of the plane. I am quite positive that, even for Australians, an apple falls downwards, not sideways. But if you have your doubts, I urge you to try dropping something—just make sure it’s nothing that can break or hurt you. For further reading about the center of mass and distribution of mass, check out this link. And if you are brave enough to handle some equations (not involving integration), you can learn more about Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation here. Sign up for PopSci’s newsletter and receive the latest science and tech updates to your inbox. 10. Images from space In the past 60 years of space exploration, we’ve launched satellites, probes, and people into space. Some of them got back, some of them still float through the solar system (and almost beyond it), and many transmit amazing images to our receivers on Earth. In all of these photos, the Earth is (wait for it) spherical. The curvature of the Earth is also visible in the many, many, many, many photos snapped by astronauts aboard the International Space Station. You can see a recent example from ISS Commander Scott Kelly‘s Instagram right here: You know what they say—a picture is worth a thousand diss tracks. Moriel Schottlender is a software engineer at Wikimedia Foundation. This article was originally posted on her Smarter Than That blog in 2008. You may also be interested in: Awe-inspiring photos of the Earth from space See our solar system like you’ve never seen it before What would happen if the Earth started to spin faster? WATCH: The coincidental geometry of a total solar eclipse
  19. 7 ways to prove the earth is round Posted by Erik Frenz | Published March 30, 2018, 09:00 There are few certainties in life: death, taxes, and the sun's rising in the east and setting in the west. Or does it rise on the left and set on the right? Lately, as flat-Earth theorists have become more vocal, it seems as though people are more frequently asking questions of that very nature, and the movement is gaining ground. (Just this week, a flat-earth believer launched himself into space in a homemade rocket in an effort to disprove the round-Earth theory.) These questions go against every logical explanation of what we know to be true about our planet: mainly, that it is sphere-shaped and orbits the sun. The rise in visibility of flat-Earth theories might be a product of what's rapidly becoming known as the "post-fact/post-truth era" in our society, in which an untruth repeated enough times becomes truth by groupthink. However, these theories existed long before the 2016 election cycle and have outlasted counterarguments from Aristotle, Ferdinand Magellan, NASA, and most rational-thinking humans. Too often, the discourse about the shape of Earth becomes about proving negatives and centers on explaining that something isn't true rather than proving that it is. Indeed, the burden should be on flat-Earth theorists to explain clearly why their theories are correct and to use science to back those claims. Fortunately, for every idea on why Earth might be flat, there is physical evidence that proves Earth is definitely globular. Here's a bunch of that evidence, and you don't even need to spend $1 million to launch yourself into space. 1. Watch a ship sail off to sea Without being in the sky, it is impossible to see the curvature of the Earth. However, you can always see a demonstration of this if you visit a harbor or any place with a wide-open view of the water. If you are able to watch a ship sail off to sea, watch its mast and flag as it fades off into the distance. You will notice that, in fact, it does not "fade off into the distance" at all; instead, you will see its mast and flag appear to slowly sink. The ship sailed beyond the point at which you would see it. Just to be sure, bring a pair of binoculars with you so that you can see even farther off into the distance. It's as if you're watching it go over to the other side of a hill. This phenomenon can only be explained by a sphere-shaped planet. 2. Watch a lunar eclipse Solar eclipses get all the attention, but if you are able to catch a glimpse of a lunar eclipse, you can see evidence that the Earth is, indeed, round. Here's how it works: Earth passes between the moon and sun, so that the sun projects Earth’s shadow onto the Moon in the night sky. You've probably seen a partial lunar eclipse without even noticing it; if the moon looks orange, that's a sign of a lunar eclipse. If you've ever seen a total lunar eclipse, you probably noticed that the shadow did not look like this. A round shadow crossed over a round object. This does not sound like a thing that would happen if we were on a plane with all of the celestial bodies simply hovering overhead—or, perhaps more assinine, if the sun were orbiting Earth and not vice versa. The last total lunar eclipse took place on January 31, 2018, but it was not visible in most of the United States. Fear not, as you only have to wait a few months for one that will be visible in the Americas on July 27, 2018. 3. Climb a tree Imagine a vast plane with but one tree smack in the middle. If the earth were flat, your vision would extend exactly as far while standing at the base of the tree as it would when at the top of the tree. However, the farther you climb, the farther your line of sight will extend to the horizon. That's because parts of Earth that were concealed from view by its curvature are now revealed because your position has changed. Back to the vast plane. The naked eye can see objects that are millions of miles away in space. Theoretically, with a clear line of sight on a clear night, one would also be able to see bright lights from far-away cities. That this is not possible is further evidence of a round, not flat, Earth. 4. Travel through, or even within, different time zones According to a 2008 paper in Applied Optics by David K. Lynch, the curvature of the earth becomes somewhat visible at an elevation of 35,000 feet (with a >60° field of view) and more easily visible at an elevation of 50,000 feet. So if you're on the right commercial flight, you might be able to see the curvature of the earth with your own two eyes. In the event that you're not high enough, though, you can still experience the curvature of the earth another way. For example, if you were to fly all the way around the world, you'd find that it would be nighttime in part of the world and daytime in another part. In that way, the existence of time zones itself is proof that the Earth is round. Taken another way, you wouldn't even need to travel through different time zones. Time zones are wide enough that you will see the sun rising and/or setting later in the western part of a time zone than in the eastern part. According to the Farmers' Almanac, the sun will rise and set roughly four minutes later for every 70 miles you drive from east to west. If you wanted to combine this experiment with the previous one, you could note how much more of Earth you can see when you begin your ascent into the air than you can while you are sitting on the tarmac waiting to take off. 5. Watch a sunset Pick a nice spot from which you can watch a sunset (we'll call this point A). Ideally, you'd have a clear horizon in front of you, and behind you would be some sort of elevated point that you can quickly access (a hill, a building with at least two floors, or perhaps the aforementioned tree; we'll call this point B). Watch the sunset from point A, and once the sun is out of sight, hurry on over to point B. With the added elevation provided by point B, you should be able to see the sun above the horizon. If Earth were flat, the sun would not be visible at any elevation once it had set. Because Earth is round, the sun will come back into your line of sight. If you don't have a hill, you could even try lying on your stomach to watch the sunset and then standing up to get a higher line of sight. 6. Measure shadows across the country Pick two locations that are some distance apart (at least a couple hundred miles from each other and on the same meridian). Grab two sticks or dowels (or other objects) of equal length, two tape measures, and a friend. Each of you will take one stick/dowel/object and one tape measure to your location, stick the object into the ground, and measure the shadow. (For accuracy, you should both take your measurements at the same time of day.) On a flat Earth, the shadow that is cast by each would be of the same length. However, if you and your friend compare notes, you'll find that one shadow was longer than the other. That's because, due to the curvature of Earth, the sun will hit one part of Earth at one angle and another part of Earth at a different angle even at the same time of day. This experiment has been around since about 240 B.C., when Greek mathematician Eratosthenes compared the shadows cast in both Syene—now Aswan, Egypt—and Alexandria on the summer solstice. Eratosthenes had learned of a well in Syene where once a year on the summer solstice, the sun would illuminate the entire bottom of the well and tall buildings and other objects would not cast a shadow. However, he noticed that shadows were being cast on the summer solstice in Alexandria, so he measured the angle of the shadow and found it to be an angle of about 7.2°. 7. Google "International Space Station photos" Seriously, just look at some of the amazing photos you’ll find. There appears to be quite the curvature there. Sometimes, seeing is believing, and one's own research can be the best evidence, whether that's taking the time to do your own investigating or simply searching for the results of others who have run their own experiments. Correction: A previous version of this article mistakenly referenced solar eclipses, where the Moon passes between Earth and the Sun, instead of lunar eclipses, where the Earth passes between the Moon and Sun. The text has been updated. The author apologizes for the error.
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