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krome2ez

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About krome2ez

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  1. IQD Currency & Central Bank of Iraq Exchange Rate News Central Bank of Iraq Restructuring Iraqi Currency Deleting Zeros August 13, 2016 by Nick Giammarino Leave a Comment Until now, the only translations we have had of official CBI (Central Bank of Iraq) documents have been machine auto translations, this one is the real deal. I first mentioned this in my YouTube video on the CBI. Translated by a professional translator fluent in both English and Arabic, here is what the CBI said regarding deleting the zeros. Last Updated On: August 13, 2016 By: Nick Giammarino PAGE:1 اﻋﺎدة هيكلة اﻟﻌﻤﻠﺔ اﻟﻌﺮاﻗﻴﺔ ﻣﺸﺮوع ﺣﺬف اﻻﺻﻔﺎر اﻟﺜﻼﺛﺔ وكلف اﻟﻤﻌﺎﻣﻼت اﻟﻨﻘﺪﻳﺔ د .ﻣﻈﻬﺮ ﻣﺤﻤﺪ ﺻﺎﻟﺢ ﻗﺎﺳﻢ ﻧﺎﺋﺐ ﻣﺤﺎﻓﻆ اﻟﺒﻨﻚ اﻟﻤﺮكزي اﻟﻌﺮاﻗﻲ 2012 كاﻧﻮن اﻟﺜﺎﻧﻲ Restructuring of Iraqi currency Deleting the three zeros and the cost of monetary transactions project Dr.Mathhar Mohammed Saleh Qasem Deputy Governor of the Central Bank of Iraq January 2012 ﻓﻲ ﻇﻞ اﻟﻈﺮوف اﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎدﻳﺔ واﻟﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ اﻟﻤﺘﻘﻠﺒﺔ وﺿﻐﻮط اﻟﺘﻀﺨﻢ اﻟﻨﻘﺪي اﻟﺘﻲ ﺣﻠﺖ ﻓﻲ ﺑﻼدﻧﺎ ﺳﺎﺑﻘﺎ ،وادت اﻟﻰ اﺛﺎر ﺳﻠﺒﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ اﻧﺘﻈﺎم اﻟﺴﻮق اﻟﺘﺠﺎرﻳﺔ واﺳﻮاق اﻟﻌﻤﻞ واﻻﻧﺘﺎج ﻓﻘﺪ ﺗﻮﻟﺪت ﺗﺸﻮهﺎت آﺜﻴﺮة ﻓﻲ اﻟﺒﻨﻰ واﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎت اﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎدﻳﺔ واﻟﺘﻲ ، آﺎن ﻣﻦ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﺎ ﺗﻮاﺟﺪ آﺘﻠﺔ ﻧﻘﺪﻳﺔ آﺜﻴﺮة اﻻﺻﻔﺎر ﻗﻠﻴﻠﺔ اﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ وﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﺤﻮ ﻻ ﻳﺘﻨﺎﺳﺐ واﻟﺘﻄﻮرات ﻣﻤﺎ ﻳﻘﺘﻀﻲ اﻳﺠﺎد ﺣﻞ ﻟﻬﺬﻩ اﻟﻈﺮوف ، اﻟﻤﻘﺒﻠﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﺿﺮ وﻣﺴﺘﻘﺒﻞ اﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎد اﻟﻌﺮاﻗﻲ وﻣﺨﻠﻔﺎﺗﻬﺎ، وﻣﻦ هﺬﻩ اﻟﺤﻠﻮل اﺻﻼح ﻧﻈﺎم ادارة اﻟﻌﻤﻠﺔ اﻟﻨﻘﺪﻳﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼل هﻴﻜﻠﺘﻬﺎ و ﺣﺬف . اﻻﺻﻔﺎر ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﻟﻠﺴﻴﻄﺮة ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﺪﻓﻖ وادارة آﻠﻔﺔ اﻟﻜﺘﻠﺔ اﻟﻨﻘﺪﻳﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﺤﻮ اﻣﺜﻞ Under the unstable economical and financial circumstances, and the pressure of inflation which our country has faced before resulting in negative outcomes on the uniformity of the marketplace, labor markets, productivity and citizen’s living standards, a lot of distortions were produced which affected the economic structures and relations that included the existence of a monetary mass having a lot of zeros but a little value in a way not suitable for the upcoming development in the present and the future of Iraqi economy. This requires finding a solution for these circumstances and their remnants. One of the solutions is to fix the system of currency management by restructuring and deleting the zeros from it to control the flow and monetary supply cost management in an efficient manner. ﺗﺮﻟﻴﻮن دﻳﻨﺎر ﻋﺮاﻗﻲ ﺑﻤﺨﺘﻠﻒ اﻟﻔﺌﺎت 30 ان ﺗﺪاول آﺘﻠﺔ ﻧﻘﺪﻳﺔ ﻣﺼﺪرة ﺗﺮﺑﻮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻠﻴﺎر ورﻗﺔ ﻧﻘﺪﻳﺔ هﻲ ﻧﺘﺎج ﻣﺮﺣﻠﺔ ﻃﻮﻳﻠﺔ ﻣﻦ 4 واﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﻌﻜﺴﻬﺎ ﻋﺪد اﻻوراق اﻟﻤﺘﺪاوﻟﺔ اﻟﺒﺎﻟﻐﺔ ﺣﻴﺚ ارﺗﻔﻊ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ اﻟﻤﺜﺎل اﻟﺮﻗﻢ اﻟﻘﻴﺎﺳﻲ ﻻﺳﻌﺎر اﻟﻤﺴﺘﻬﻠﻚ ، اﻟﺘﻀﺨﻢ واﻟﺘﺪهﻮر اﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎدي ﻣﻤﺎ ﻳﻌﻨﻲ ان اﻟﺴﻠﻌﺔ اﻟﺘﻲ 2003 ﻓﻲ ﺧﻀﻢ اﻟﻌﺎم 200000 اﻟﻰ 100 ﻣﻦ 1993 ﺑﺎﺳﺎس دﻳﻨﺎر … وهﻜﺬا . وﺗﺤﺖ هﻜﺬا ﻇﺮف 200000 دﻳﻨﺎر اﺻﺒﺤﺖ ﺗﺒﺎع ﺑـ 100 آﺎﻧﺖ ﺗﺒﺎع ﺑـ دﻳﻨﺎر ﻣﻤﺎ ﻳﻌﻨﻲ ان 25000 دﻳﻨﺎر اﻟﻰ 25 وﺗﺪهﻮر ﻗﻴﻤﺔ اﻟﻌﻤﻠﺔ ارﺗﻔﻌﺖ ﻓﺌﺔ اﻟﻌﻤﻠﺔ اﻻآﺒﺮ ﻣﻦ اﻟﺘﻀﺨﻢ هﻮ اﻟﺬي اﺿﺎف هﺬﻩ اﻻﺻﻔﺎر The circulation of the issued monetary mass exceeds 30 trillion Iraqi Dinars in different categories which is reflected by the number of bills in circulation which is 4 million bills. This is as a result of a long period of inflation and economical deterioration, since for example the record of the consumer prices have increased from 100 in 1993 to 200000 in the year of 2003 which means that the product that used to be sold by 100 Dinars is now sold by 200000 Dinars and so on. Under this circumstance and the deterioration of the value of the currency, the biggest category of currency increased from 25 Dinars to 25000 Dinars which means that the inflation is the reason the zeros were added.* 25 *ﻻ ﺗﺘﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﻓﺌﺎت اﻟﻌﻤﻠﺔ اﻟﺤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻣﻊ اﻟﻮﺿﻊ اﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎدي اﻟﺮاهﻦ واﻟﻤﻘﺒﻞ. ﻓﻌﻠﻰ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ اﻟﻤﺜﺎل و ﻗﺒﻴﻞ اﻧﺪﻻع اﻟﺤﺮب اﻟﻌﺮاﻗﻴﺔ اﻻﻳﺮاﻧﻴﺔ آﺎﻧﺖ ﻓﺌﺔ اﻟـ اﻟﻒ دﻳﻨﺎر .ﻟﻘﺪ اﺿﺎف اﻟﺘﻀﺨﻢ اﻟﻤﺎﻟﻲ ﻓﻲ اﻟﺒﻼد ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺪى 300 دوﻻرا ﺑﺎﻟﻘﻮة اﻟﺸﺮاﺋﻴﺔ ﻟﺬﻟﻚ اﻟﻮﻗﺖ او ﻣﺎ ﻳﻌﺎدﻟﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ اﻟﻮﻗﺖ اﻟﺤﺎﺿﺮ 75 دﻳﻨﺎرا ﺗﻌﺎدل اﻟﻒ دﻳﻨﺎر 25 ﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﻋﻘﻮد ﻣﻦ اﻟﺰﻣﻦ اﺻﻔﺎرا اﻟﻰ اﻟﻌﻤﻠﺔ وﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﺮﻏﻢ ﻣﻦ ذﻟﻚ ﻟﻢ ﺗﺮﻓﻊ ﺗﻠﻚ اﻻﺻﻔﺎر ﻣﻦ اﻟﻘﺪرة اﻟﺸﺮاﺋﻴﺔ ﻻآﺒﺮ ﻓﺌﺔ ﻣﻦ اﻟﻌﻤﻠﺔ وهﻲ اﻟـ دوﻻرا . وﻧﺤﻦ ﺑﺤﺎﺟﺔ اﻟﻴﻮم اﻟﻰ اﻋﺎدة هﻴﻜﻠﺔ اﻟﻌﻤﻠﺔ . ﻓﺎﻻﺻﻔﺎر اﻟﻜﺒﻴﺮة ﺗﻌﻨﻲ آﺘﻠﺔ ﻧﻘﺪﻳﺔ آﺒﻴﺮة ﻓﻲ اﻟﺘﺪاول ﺗﺒﻠﻎ اﻟﻴﻮم ﻗﺮاﺑﺔ 21 و اﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺴﺎوي اﻟﻴﻮم ﺗﺮﻳﻠﻴﻮن دﻳﻨﺎر ﻣﻤﺎ ﺗﻄﻠﺒﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺗﺪاول ﻧﻘﺪي ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮ واﻟﻰ آﻠﻔﺔ آﺒﻴﺮة ﻓﻲ اﻟﻌﺪ واﻟﻔﺮز وﻣﺎ ﺗﺴﺘﻐﺮﻗﻪ ﻣﻦ وﻗﺖ وﺧﻮاص ﻣﻜﺎﻧﻴﺔ واﻣﻨﻴﺔ . ﻓﻔﻲ ﻧﻈﺎم 30 اﻻﺳﻌﺎر، ﻳﻌﺪ اﻟﺴﻌﺮ هﻮ اﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﻣﻌﺒﺮ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﻘﺪ وﻣﻦ ﺛﻢ ﻓﺎن هﻴﻜﻞ اﻟﺘﻜﺎﻟﻴﻒ واﻟﻤﺪﻓﻮﻋﺎت اﻻﺟﺮﻳﺔ واﻟﺮواﺗﺐ واﻗﻴﺎم اﻟﻤﻌﺎﻣﻼت أﻣﺴﺖ ﺟﻤﻴﻌﻬﺎ ﻻ ﺗﺘﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﻣﻊ ﺣﺎﺟﺔ اﻟﺒﻼد اﻟﻰ ﻧﻈﺎم ادارة ﻧﻘﺪﻳﺔ ﻳﻨﺴﺠﻢ وهﻴﻜﻠﺔ اﻟﻘﻄﺎع اﻟﺤﻘﻴﻘﻲ واﻟﻤﺴﺘﻮﻳﺎت اﻟﺴﻌﺮﻳﺔ اﻟﺘﻲ ﺑﻠﻐﻬﺎ . ﻓﺎﻟﺒﻼد ﺑﺤﺎﺟﺔ اﻟﻰ ﻧﻈﺎم ﻧﻘﺪي ﺳﻬﻞ . ( اﻟﺘﻌﺎﻣﻞ * The current currency categories are not suitable with the economical situation in the present and for the future. For example, before the Iraqi-Irani war, the category of 25 Dinars was equal to 75 US Dollars in the purchasing power of that time or its equivalent to 300 thousand Dinars in the present time. The inflation, during the time of thirty years increased zeros to the currency and in spite of that it did not increase the purchasing power of the highest category of the currency which is 25 thousand Dinars which is equivalent to 21 US Dollars. Today we are in need of restructuring the currency. The big zeros mean a big mass of cash in circulation which is equal to about 30 trillion Dinars today which is required for direct monetary circulation and has a greater cost in counting and sorting, it also takes time as well as storage and security facilities. In the system of costs, the cost is the value expressed by cash so the structure of the costs, wages payments, salaries and the execution of dealings are all not suitable with the requirement of the country to have a monetary management system which is compatible with the structuring of the real sectors and the price levels it reached. The country needs a convenient cash system from small and big categories expressing the cost of that real structure. (Refer to the details in the next page’s footnote). PAGE 2: ازداد ﺗﻀﺨﻢ اﻟﺮﻗﻢ اﻟﻘﻴﺎﺳﻲ ﻻﺳﻌﺎر اﻟﻤﺴﺘﻬﻠﻚ 2007-1990 و ﻳﻠﺤﻆ ان ﺧﻼل اﻟﻤﺪة %وﺑﻐﻴﺔ اﻟﺘﺒﺴﻴﻂ ﻓﺄن اﻟﺴﻠﻌﺔ اﻟﺘﻲ آﺎﻧﺖ ﺗﺒﺎع ﺑﻤﺌﺔ دﻳﻨﺎر ﻗﺒﻞ ﺑﺪء ﺣﺮب اﻟﻜﻮﻳﺖ 400000 اﻟﻰ . ﻋﻠﻤًﺎ ان ﻗﻴﻤﺔ اﻟﺪﻳﻨﺎر 2007 دﻳﻨﺎر ﻓﻲ اﻟﻌﺎم 400000 اﺻﺒﺤﺖ ﺗﺒﺎع ب 1990 ﻓﻲ اﻟﻌﺎم %ﻣﻘﺎﺑﻞ اﻟﺪوﻻر 99 ﺑﻤﻌﺪل اآﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ 1998-1990 اﻟﻌﺮاﻗﻲ اﻧﺨﻔﻀﺖ ﻣﺮﺗﻴﻦ وﺑﺸﺪة ﺧﻼل ﻣﺪة 1997 واﻻﻧﺨﻔﺎض اﻻﺧﺮ آﺎن ﻓﻲ اﻟﻌﺎم 1990 اﻻﻣﺮﻳﻜﻲ . ﻓﺄن اﻻﻧﺨﻔﺎض اﻻول آﺎن ﻋﺎم %ﻣﻤﺎ ﺟﻌﻞ اﺟﻤﺎل اﻻﻧﺨﻔﺎض ﻓﻲ ﺳﻌﺮ ﺻﺮف اﻟﺪﻳﻨﺎر اﻟﻌﺮاﻗﻲ ازاء اﻟﺪوﻻر 93.2 وﺑﻨﺴﺒﺔ وان ﺧﻼل هﺬﻩ اﻟﻤﺪة ﻟﻮﺣﺪهﺎ ﺑﻠﻎ 1998 (%ذﻟﻚ ﻓﻲ ﻧﻬﺎﻳﺔ اﻟﻌﺎم 99.99 ﺑﻮاﻗﻊ) ﺳﺎﻟﺐ . %45000 اﻟﺘﻀﺨﻢ ﻓﻲ اﻟﺮﻗﻢ اﻟﻘﻴﺎﺳﻲ ﻻﺳﻌﺎر اﻟﻤﺴﺘﻬﻠﻚ It is noticed that during the period 1990-2007 the record of inflatio for the consumer prices has increased to 400000%. For simplification, the product which used to be sold by one hundred Dinars before the Kuwait war in 1990 is now sold by 400000 Dinar in the year of 2007. Note that the value of Iraqi Dinar has fallen twice severely during 1990-1998 at the rate of more than 99% compared to the US Dollar. The first fall was in 1990 and the second one was in 1997 by 93.2% which made the total fall in the exchange price of the Iraqi Dollar compared to the Dollar (-99.99%) in the end of 1998. During this time only, the inflation in the record for the consumer prices has reached 45000%. واذ ﻣﺎﻋﻠﻤﻨﺎ ان اﻟﺘﻀﺨﻢ ﻳﻌﻨﻲ ﺑﻨﻔﺴﻪ ارﺗﻔﺎع اﺳﻌﺎر اﻟﻨﻘﻮد ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﺴﻠﻊ price واﻟﺨﺪﻣﺎت ) اي آﻢ ﻣﻦ اﻟﻨﻘﻮد ﻧﺤﺘﺎج ﻟﻤﺒﺎدﻟﺘﻬﺎ ﺑﺤﺰﻣﺔ ﻣﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﻣﻦ اﻟﺴﻠﻊ واﻟﺨﺪﻣﺎت .. ﻓﻜﻠﻤﺎ ﺗﺰداد آﻤﻴﺔ اﻟﻨﻘﻮد اﻟﻤﺨﺼﺼﺔ ﻟﻤﺒﺎدﻟﺘﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﺤﺰﻣﺔ ﻧﻔﺴﻬﺎ ﻣﻌﻨﻰ ذﻟﻚ ان هﻨﺎك ﺗﻀﺨﻢ او وان ، ارﺗﻔﺎع ﻓﻲ اﺳﻌﺎر اﻟﻨﻘﻮد . ( ﻣﻨﻮهﻴﻦ ان ﻗﻴﻤﺔ اﻟﻨﻘﻮد ﺗﺘﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﻋﻜﺴﻴًﺎ ﻣﻊ اﺳﻌﺎر اﻟﻨﻘﻮد اﻟﺴﻌﺮ هﻮ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ اﻟﺴﻠﻊ واﻟﺨﺪﻣﺎت ﻣﻌﺒﺮ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﻘﺪ If we recognize that the inflation by itself means the rise of money price on products and services (meaning how much money we need to exchange for a certain amount of products and services. So every time the specified amount of money for exchange increases on the same amount of services or products, then that means that there is an inflation or rise in the money price). Noting that the money value is inversely proportional to the money price, the price is the value of the product or services expressed by cash* 30 (*)ﺗﺸﻴﺮ اﻟﺪراﺳﺎت اﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ان ﻣﻌﺪل دﺧﻞ اﻟﻄﺒﻴﺐ اﻟﻌﺮاﻗﻲ اﻟﺸﻬﺮي آﺎن ﻻ ﻳﺴﺎوي آﻘﻮة ﺷﺮاﺋﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺗﺴﻌﻴﻨﻴﺎت اﻟﻘﺮن اﻟﻤﺎﺿﻲ ﺳﻮى ﻟﺸﺮاء ﻗﻄﻌﺔ ﺧﺒﺰ ﻓﻲ ذﻟﻚ اﻟﺸﻬﺮ وﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺪى ﺳﻨﻮات اﻟﺤﺼﺎر اﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎدي . آﻤﺎ ان اﻟﻜﺜﻴﺮ ﻣﻦ اﻟﻌﺎﻣﻠﻴﻦ ﻓﻲ اﻟﻤﺆﺳﺴﺎت اﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﻗﺪ اﻗﻠﻌﻮا 20 ﺑﻴﻀﺔ دﺟﺎج و ﻋﻦ اﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﻟﻜﻮن اﻟﻌﺎﺋﺪ اﻟﺸﻬﺮي ﻻﻳﻐﻄﻲ ﺗﻜﺎﻟﻴﻒ اﻟﻨﻘﻞ اﻟﻰ ﻣﻜﺎن اﻟﻌﻤﻞ . وﻻﻧﻨﺴﻰ آﻴﻒ ﺧﻠﻘﺖ اﺳﻮاق ﻣﺸﻮهﺔ ﻓﻲ اﻟﺒﻼد ﺗﻘﺎﻳﺾ ﺑﻬﺎ اﻟﻤﻮاد اﻟﻤﺴﺘﻌﻤﻠﺔ ﻣﻦ اﻻﺛﺎث واﻟﺴﻠﻊ اﻟﻤﻌﻤﺮة واﻟﻤﻼﺑﺲ ﻟﺸﺮاء اﻟﻄﺤﻴﻦ او اﻟﺴﻜﺮ وﺳﺪ اﻟﺤﺪ اﻻدﻧﻰ ﻣﻦ اﺣﺘﻴﺎﺟﺎت اﻻﺳﺮ ﻟﻠﻄﻌﺎم .وان اﻟﻘﻄﺎع اﻟﺰراﻋﻲ ﺑﺤﺪ ذاﺗﻪ آﻘﻄﺎع ﻣﻨﺘﺞ ﻟﻠﻤﻮاد اﻟﻐﺬاﺋﻴﺔ ﻗﺪ ﺗﺪهﻮرت اوﺿﺎﻋﻪ ﻣﻨﺬ ﺳﺒﻌﻴﻨﻴﺎت اﻟﻘﺮن اﻟﻤﺎﺿﻲ ﺑﺴﺒﺐ ﺗﺪهﻮر اﻻرﻳﺎف واﻻﻧﻐﻤﺎس ﺑﺎﻟﺮﻳﻊ اﻟﻨﻔﻄﻲ ﻓﻲ اﻟﻮﻇﺎﺋﻒ اﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ .( %ﻓﻲ ﺣﻴﻦ آﺎن ﻣﻌﺪل اﻟﻨﻤﻮ 1.1 ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ اﻟﻤﺜﺎل ﺑﻠﻎ ﻣﻌﺪل اﻟﻨﻤﻮ اﻟﺴﻨﻮي ﻓﻲ اﻟﻘﻄﺎع اﻟﺰراﻋﻲ) ﺳﺎﻟﺐ 1982-1972 وﻋﺴﻜﺮة اﻟﺒﻼد ﻓﺨﻼل اﻟﻤﺪة %ﺳﻨﻮﻳًﺎ .ﻣﻊ اﻟﻌﺮض ان ﺟﻤﻴﻊ اﻟﻘﻄﺎﻋﺎت اﻟﺴﻠﻌﻴﺔ ﺷﻬﺪت ﺗﺪهﻮرًا ﻓﻲ اﻟﻨﻤﻮ ﺧﻼل اﻋﻮام 7.1 ﻗﺪ ﺑﻠﻎ 1972-1962 ﻓﻲ ذﻟﻚ اﻟﻘﻄﺎع ﺑﻴﻦ اﻻﻋﻮام اﻟﺘﺴﻌﻴﻨﻴﺎت وﻻﺳﻴﻤﺎ ﻗﻄﺎﻋﻲ اﻟﺰراﻋﺔ واﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﺔ . دوﻻر 750 دوﻻر، ﺑﻌﺪ ان آﺎن ﻻﻳﺘﻌﺪى 5300 اﻣﺎ اﻟﻴﻮم ﻓﻘﺪ ارﺗﻔﻊ ﻣﺘﻮﺳﻂ دﺧﻞ اﻟﻔﺮد اﻟﻌﺮاﻗﻲ اﻟﺴﻨﻮي ﻣﻦ اﻟﻨﺎﺗﺞ اﻟﻤﺤﻠﻲ اﻻﺟﻤﺎﻟﻲ اﻟﻰ ﻣﺎﻳﺰﻳﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ 10000 .و ان ﻣﺘﻮﺳﻂ دﺧﻞ اﻟﻤﻮﻇﻒ اﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﻲ ﻳﺒﻠﻎ ﻗﺮاﺑﺔ ﺿﻌﻒ ﻣﺘﻮﺳﻂ دﺧﻞ اﻟﻔﺮد ﻣﻦ اﻟﻨﺎﺗﺞ اﻟﻤﺤﻠﻲ اﻻﺟﻤﺎﻟﻲ وﻳﻘﺪر ﺑﺤﻮاﻟﻲ 2003 ﻗﺒﻞ اﻟﻌﺎم دوﻻر ﺳﻨﻮﻳًﺎ (*) The social studies point that the monthly income rate of the Iraqi doctor was not considered as a purchasing power in the nineties of the last century except to buy 30 eggs or 20 pieces of bread in that month throughout the economic blockade. Many workers in different corporations have quit working because the monthly income was not sufficient for transportation to workplace. We do not forget how distorted markets were created, used goods from furniture, durable goods, and clothes were traded to buy wheat and sugar to secure the minimum requirements of the families for food. The agricultural sector itself as a food-producing sector has deteriorated from the seventies of the last century due to the deterioration of villages, the concentration on oil income in public jobs and the militarization of the country. During the period of 1972-1982 for example, the annual rate of growth in the agricultural sector was (-1.1%). Whereas the growth rate in that sector between 1972-1962 reached 7.1% annually. Noting that, all the commodity sectors deteriorated in growth in the nineties especially the agricultural and industrial sectors. Today, the average annual income for an Iraqi individual from the gross domestic product is more than 5300 Dollars, when it did not exceed 750 Dollars before the year of 2003. And the average income for government employee reaches about double the average income of individuals from the gross domestic product and is estimated by 10000 Dollars annually. PAGE 3 وﻟﻤﺎ آﺎﻧﺖ اﻟﻨﻘﻮد هﻲ اي ﺷﻲء ﻳﺘﻔﻖ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ اﻟﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ ﻟﻴﺼﺒﺢ وﺳﻴﻂ ﻟﻠﺘﺒﺎدل وﻣﺨﺰن ﻟﻠﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﻓﺎن اﻟﻨﻘﻮد) اﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻧﻴﺔ (اﻟﺼﺎدرة ﻋﻦ اﻟﺴﻠﻄﺔ اﻟﻨﻘﺪﻳﺔ ﺑﻤﻮﺟﺐ اﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮن وذات ، ووﺣﺪة ﺣﺴــﺎب Social ُﻳﻨﻈﺮ اﻟﻴﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﻧﻬﺎ ﻣﺆﺳﺴﺔ اﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ، ﻗﻮة اﺑﺮاء ﻟﻠﺬﻣﻢ ،ﺣﻴﺚ ﺗﺰداد آﻔﺎءة Institution اﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎد وﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺗﻪ ﻓﻲ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﻚ اﻟﺘﺒﺎدل ﺑﻜﻔﺎءة ﺗﻠﻚ اﻟﻤﺆﺳﺴﺔ اﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ اي اﻟﻨﻘﻮد واﻟﻌﻜﺲ ﻣﻠﻴﺎر دﻳﻨﺎر ﻓﻲ 23 ﺑﺎﻟﻌﻜﺲ . ﻟﻘﺪ ادى اﻟﺘﻀﺨﻢ اﻟﻤﺴﺘﻤﺮ اﻟﻰ ارﺗﻔﺎع رﻗﻢ اﻟﻌﻤﻠﺔ اﻟﻤﺘﺪاوﻟﺔ ﻣﻦ وارﺗﻔﺎع اآﺒﺮ ﻓﺌﺔ ﻋﻤﻠﺔ ﻣﻦ ، ( ﺗﺮﻟﻴﻮن دﻳﻨﺎر ﻓﻲ اﻟﻮﻗﺖ اﻟﺤﺎﺿﺮ 30) اﻟﻰ ﺣﻮاﻟﻲ 1991 اﻟﻌﺎم رﺳﻢ اﻟﺘﻀﺨﻢ ارﻗﺎﻣًﺎ ﺟﺪﻳﺪة ﻟﻠﻌﻤﻠﺔ ، دﻳﻨﺎر ﺑﻤﺮور اﻟﻮﻗﺖ . وﺑﻬﺬا 25000 دﻳﻨﺎر اﻟﻰ 25 اﻟﻤﺘﺪاوﻟﺔ ﺑﺎﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺛﻼﺛﺔ اﺻﻔﺎر ﻣﻤﺎ زاد ﻣﻦ ﻣﻘﺪار اﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺎت اﻟﻨﻘﺪﻳﺔ اﻻﺳﻤﻴﺔ ورﺗﺐ ﺗﻜﺎﻟﻴﻒ اﻧﺘﺎج آﻤﻴﺎت آﺒﻴﺮة ﻣﻨﻬﺎ راﻓﻘﺘﻬﺎ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎت ﺧﺰن وﺗﻮزﻳﻊ وﻋـﺪ وﻓـﺮز وﺗﺪﻗﻴﻖ ﻣﺮاﻓﻘﺔ ﻟﻬﺎ Operational وﺑﻤﺴﺘﻮﻳﺎت ﻣﻀﺎﻋﻔﺔ،ﺳﺎﻋﺪت ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻌﺎﻇﻢ اﻟﻤﺨﺎﻃﺮ اﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴﻠﻴﺔ اﻟﻤﺼﺎﺣﺒﺔ Risk Since money has been approved by the society to be the mediator for trading, holder of value and a unit for calculation, then the (legal) money issued by the monetary authority in accordance to the law having discharge power, is looked at as a social institution since the efficiency of the economy and its operations in the movement of trade is increased by the increase in the efficiency of that social institution meaning money and vice-versa. The continual inflation has lead to the increase in the number of the currency in circulation from 23 billion Dinars in 1991 to about 30 trillion Dinars in the present time and the increase of the largest category of the currency from 25 Dinars to 25000 Dinars as time went by. By this, the inflation drew new numbers on the currency in circulation in addition to three zeros which increased the amount of nominal monetary operations and resulted in big production expenses as well as storage, distribution, counting, sorting and auditing in big levels. This resulted in the increment of the accompanied operational risks. وﻓﻲ ﻇﻞ اﻻﺳﺘﻘﺮار اﻟﺴﻌﺮي واﻟﺘﻔﺎؤل ﺑﻤﺴﺘﻘﺒﻞ اﻟﻌﺮاق اﻻﻧﻤﺎﺋﻲ ﻓﻘـﺪ ﺑﺎت ﻣﻦ اﻟﻼزم اﺟﺮاء اﺻﻼح ﺟﺬري ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﻈﺎم ادارة اﻟﻌﻤﻠﺔ وذﻟﻚ ﺑﺎﻋﺎدة هﻴﻜﻠﻴﺘﻬﺎ ﺑﻤﺎ ﻳﺘﻨﺎﺳﺐ وهﻴﻜﻞ اﻻﺳﻌﺎر اﻟﺠﺪﻳﺪ اﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻒ واﻟﻤﺴﺘﻘﺮ وﻣﺴﺘﻮﻳﺎت اﻻﺟﻮر واﻟﺮواﺗﺐ اﻟﺘﻲ اﺧﺘﻠﻔﺖ آﺜﻴﺮا ﻋﻦ ﻓﻀﻼ ﻋﻦ اﻟﺘﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﺑﻜﺘﻠﺔ ﻧﻘﺪﻳﺔ آﺒﻴﺮة ﺿﻌﻴﻔﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻜﻮﻧﺎﺗﻬﺎ ﺑﺤﻴﺚ ، اﻟﺴﻨﻮات اﻟﺜﻼﺛﻴﻦ اﻟﻤﺎﺿﻴﺔ دوﻻر اﻣﺮﻳﻜﻲ ﻓﻲ اﻟﻮﻗﺖ اﻟﺤﺎﺿﺮ . ﻣﻨﻮهﻴﻦ ان ارﺗﻔﺎع 21 ﺑﺎﺗﺖ اآﺒﺮ ﻓﺌﺔ ﻋﻤﻠﺔ ﻻﺗﺴﺎوي اﻻ اﻟﻰ اآﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ 2010 ﻣﻠﻴﺎر دوﻻر ﻓﻲ ﻧﻬﺎﻳﺔ اﻟﻌﺎم 140 اﻟﻨﺎﺗﺞ اﻟﻤﺤﻠﻲ اﻻﺟﻤﺎﻟﻲ ﻟﻠﻌﺮاق ﻣﻦ ﺗﺮﻟﻴﻮن دﻳﻨﺎر 30 ﺳﻴﺮﻓﻊ اﻟﻜﺘﻠﺔ اﻟﻨﻘﺪﻳﺔ اﻟﻤﺼﺪرة ﻣﻦ 2015 ﻣﻠﻴﺎر دوﻻر ﻓﻲ ﻧﻬﺎﻳﺔ ﻋﺎم 300 ﺗﺮﻟﻴﻮن دﻳﻨﺎر . وان اﻟﺘﺮآﻴﺐ اﻟﻀﻌﻴﻒ ﻓﻲ هﻴﻜﻞ اﻟﻌﻤﻠﺔ آﻤﺎ ذآﺮﻧﺎ ﺁﻧﻔًﺎ ﻗـﺪ اﺧﺬ 70 اﻟﻰ ﺣﻮاﻟﻲ ﻳﻀﻴﻒ آﻠﻔﺔ ﺗﺴﻤﻰ آﻠﻔﺔ اﻟﻤﻌﺎﻣﻼت اﻟﻨﻘﺪﻳﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺣﻴﺚ اﻟﺘﺪاول ﺑﻬﺎ ﺳﻮاء ﺑﻴﻦ اﻻﻓﺮاد اﻧﻔﺴﻬﻢ واﻻﻓﺮاد واﻟﻤﺼﺎرف وداﺧﻞ اﻟﺠﻬﺎز اﻟﻤﺼﺮﻓﻲ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ** Under the price stability and the hope in Iraq’s developmental future, it has been necessary to fix the roots of the monetary management system by restructuring it and making it suitable to the structure of the new different stable prices and the levels of wages and salaries that became very different from the last thirty years which is better than dealing with a big monetary mass which is weak in its components where the largest currency category only equals to 21 US Dollars in the present time. Noting that, the total gross domestic product rose from 140 billion dollars in the end of 2010 to more than 300 billion dollars in the end of 2015, this will raise the exported monetary mass from 30 trillion Dinars to about 70 trillion Dinars. The weak construction of the currency structure as we mentioned earlier has been adding an expense named the operational monetary expense in terms of circulation between individuals themselves or by individuals and banks, and inside the banking system itself.** اﻟﻤﻌﺎﻣﻼت اﻟﻨﻘﺪﻳﺔ ﻓﻲ اﻟﺴﻮق ( دوﻻر 100 **اﻣﺴﻰ اﻟﻄﻠﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﺪوﻻر اﻻﻣﺮﻳﻜﻲ )وﻻ ﺳﻴﻤﺎ ﻓﺌﺔ اﻟـ اﻟﻤﺤﻠﻴﺔ ﺧﺎرج ارادة اﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺔ اﻟﻨﻘﺪﻳﺔ ﻟﻜﻮن ﺗﻠﻚ اﻟﺴﻮق ﺗﺘﻄﻠﻊ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﺎﻣﻼﺗﻬﺎ اﻟﻰ ﻓﺌﺎت اآﺒﺮ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺘﻮاﻓﺮة ﺣﺎﻟﻴًﺎ وﻟﻜﻨﻬﺎ ﺗﺘﺠﺴﺪ ﺑﻔﺌﺔ اﻟﻌﻤﻠﺔ اﻻﻣﺮﻳﻜﻴﺔ اﻟﻜﺒﻴﺮة ﻟﺴﻬﻮﻟﺔ ﺣﻤﻠﻬﺎ وﺗﺪاوﻟﻬﺎ ﻟﺨﻔﺾ آﻠﻔﺔ اﻟﺘﺪاول اﻟﻨﻘﺪي او اﻟﻤﻌﺎﻣﻼت اﻟﻨﻘﺪﻳﺔ .ﻟﺬا ﻓﺄن اﻟﻨﻈﺎم اﻟﻨﻘﺪي اﻟﻌﺮاﻗﻲ اﺻﺒﺢ ﺑﺤﺎﺟﺔ ﻣﻠﺤﺔ اﻟﻰ اﺻﻼح اداري ﻟﻨﻈﺎم اﻟﻤﺪﻓﻮﻋﺎت اﻟﻨﻘﺪﻳﺔ ﻟﻴﻜﻮن هﻨﺎك ﻓﺌﺎت ﻧﻘﺪﻳﺔ ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ اﻟﻘﻮة اﻟﺸﺮاﺋﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ اﻟﺘﺪاول ﺳﻬﻠﺔ اﻟﺤﻤﻞ واﻟﺤﻴﺎزة ﺑﻤﺎ ﻳﺴﻬﻞ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎت اﻟﺘﺒﺎدل اﻟﻨﻘﺪي ﻻﻏﺮاض اﻟﻤﻌﺎﻣﻼت اواﻟﻤﺘﺎﺟﺮة. ﻣﻨﻮهﻴﻦ ان اﻻﺧﺘﻼل ﻓﻲ هﻴﻜﻞ او ﺗﺮآﻴﺐ اﻟﻮﺣﺪات اﻟﻨﻘﺪﻳﺔ اﻟﺤﺎﻟﻲ ﻗﺪ ﻋﻤﻖ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺸﻜﻼت) اﻟﺪوﻟﺮة (اﻟﺘﻲ رﺗﺒﺖ اﺛﺎرا ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺮﻏﻮﺑﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻓﺎﻋﻠﻴﺔ واداء اﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺔ اﻟﻨﻘﺪﻳﺔ ** The demand for the US Dollar (Especially the 100 dollar category) became a persistent need to settle the monetary operations in the local market outside of the monetary policy’s desire because that market looks forward in its operations to big categories which are not available right now but it is shown by a big American currency category due to its ease in carrying and circulation to reduce the expense of the monetary circulation or monetary operations. So, the Iraqi monetary system needs a repair in the management system of the cash payments for the existence of money categories having high purchasing power in circulation which is easy to carry and acquire which eases the monetary exchange operations for transactions and trading. Noting that, the disruption in the structure or composition of the current monetary units has deepened the problems (dollarization) which resulted in unwanted effects in the performance and efficiency of monetary policy. PAGE 4: ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺣﺎﻟﻴًﺎ واﺣﺪة ﻣﻦ اﻓﻀﻞ اﻧﻈﻤﺔ ، ﻓﻔﻲ اﻟﺴﻮﻳﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ اﻟﻤﺜﺎل ﻓﺎن آﻠﻔﺔ اﻟﺘﺪاول اﻟﻨﻘﺪي ﻣﻦ ﻋـﺪ ، اﻟﻤﺪﻓﻮﻋﺎت اﻟﻨﻘﺪﻳﺔ ﻓﻲ اﻟﻌﺎﻟﻢ وﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﺮﻏﻢ ﻣﻦ ذﻟﻚ %ﻣﻦ اﻟﻨﺎﺗﺞ اﻟﻤﺤﻠﻲ اﻻﺟﻤﺎﻟﻲ 4 وﻓــــﺮز وﻧﻘﻞ وﺧﺰن ﻟﻠﻌﻤﻠﺔ ﺗﻜﻠﻒ اﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎد اﻟﻮﻃﻨﻲ ﻣﺎﻧﺴﺒﺘﻪ ﻟﻠﺴﻮﻳﺪ . ﻓﻜﻴﻒ ﻧﻘﺎرن ذﻟﻚ ﻓﻲ ﺑﻠﺪ ﻣﺜﻞ اﻟﻌﺮاق ﻳﺘﻮﻟﻰ ادارة هﻜﺬا ﻣﻘﺎدﻳﺮ ﻧﻘﺪﻳﺔ هﺎﺋﻠﺔ ﺿﻌﻴﻔﺔ %او اآﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ اﻟﻨﺎﺗﺞ اﻟﻤﺤﻠﻲ 8 ﻣﻤﺎ ﻳﻀﻴﻒ آﻠﻔﺔ ﻣﻌﺎﻣﻼت ﻧﻘﺪﻳﺔ رﺑﻤﺎ ﺗﺼﻞ اﻟﻰ ، اﻟﺘﺮآﻴﺐ وهﻮ ﻋﺐء ﻳﺘﺤﻤﻠﻪ اﻟﻔﺮد ﻓﻲ ﺗﻌﺎﻣﻼﺗﻪ ﻣﻤﺎ اﺧﺬ ﻳﻘﻠﻞ ﻣﻦ آﻔﺎءة اﻟﻨﻘﺪ آﻤﺆﺳﺴﺔ ، اﻻﺟﻤﺎﻟﻲ اﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻣﺆازرة ﻟﻤﺆﺳﺴﺎت اﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎد اﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﺑﻤﺎ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ اﻟﺴﻮق واﻟﺪﻟﻴﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ذﻟﻚ ﺗﻨﺤﺼﺮ ﻣﻤﺎ ﻳﻌﻨﻲ اﺣﻼل ﻋﻤﻠﺔ دوﻟﺔ اﺧﺮى ﻓﻲ ، اﻟﻤﻌﺎﻣﻼت اﻟﻨﻘﺪﻳﺔ اﻟﻜﺒﻴﺮة ﻟﻠﺪﻓﻊ ﺑﺎﻟﺪوﻻر اﻻﻣﺮﻳﻜﻲ اﻟﺘﺪاول ﻻﺳﻨﺎد اﻟﻤﻌﺎﻣﻼت اﻟﻨﻘﺪﻳﺔ ﺑﺴﺒﺐ هﺒﻮط آﻔﺎءة وﺗﺮآﻴﺐ اﻟﻜﺘﻠﺔ اﻟﻨﻘﺪﻳﺔ اﻟﺤﺎﻟﻴﺔ For example, in Sweden which currently has one of the best cash payment systems in the world, in spite of that, the cost of the monetary circulation from counting, sorting, transporting, and storage of the currency costs the national economy 4% from the total gross domestic product of Sweden. So, how can we compare that country to Iraq which manages all these huge amount of cash that is weak in composition, this might add the monetary operation expenses by 8% or more from the total gross domestic production. It is a burden beard by the individual in his dealings. It has been reducing the efficiency of money as a social foundation supported by different economical foundations including the market. The evidence for this is the exclusiveness in big monetary operations to be paid by US Dollars, which means the replacement by a different currency in the circulation of assigning monetary transactions due to the fall in the efficiency and composition of the current monetary mass. وﻳﺜﻴﺮ ﺗﻌﺪد اﻻﺻﻔﺎر ﻋﻠﻰ ﻓﺌﺎت اﻟﻌﻤﻠﺔ ﻣﻊ اﻧﺨﻔﺎض اﻟﻘﻮة اﻟﺸﺮاﺋﻴﺔ ﻟﻬﺎ ﻣﺼﺎﻋﺐ ﺟﻤﺔ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﺻﻌﻮﺑﺔ اﻟﺘﻌﺒﻴﺮ ﻋﻦ اﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ اﻟﻨﻘﺪﻳﺔ ﻓﻀﻼ ﻋﻦ ﻣﺼﺎﻋﺐ اﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺎت اﻟﻨﻘﺪﻳﺔ ﻧﻔﺴﻬﺎ وﻣﺸﻜﻼت ﻓﻨﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ اﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎت اﻻﺣﺼﺎﺋﻴﺔ واﻟﺘﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﻓﻲ اﻟﺪﻓﺎﺗﺮ اﻟﻤﺤﺎﺳﺒﻴﺔ وﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ اﻧﻈﻤﺔ اﻟﺤﺎﺳﺒﺎت وﻧﻈﻢ اﻟﺘﺴﻮﻳﺎت ﻓﻀﻼ ﻋﻦ اﻇﻬﺎر اﻻﺳﻌﺎر ﺑﺎرﻗﺎم ﻃﻮﻳﻠﺔ ﺗﺼﻌﺐ اﺣﻴﺎﻧًﺎ ﺣﺘﻰ اﻟﻌﺪادات او اﻻﺟﻬﺰة اﻟﺮﻗﻤﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺮاءة اﺻﻔﺎرهﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺤﻄﺎت اﻟﻮﻗﻮد او اﻻﺟﻬﺰة اﻟﺮﻗﻤﻴﺔ اﻻﺧﺮى . اﺻﺒﺤﺖ ﺣﺎﺟﺔ ﻻﺻﻼح ﻧﻈﺎم اﻟﻤﺪﻓﻮﻋﺎت اﻟﻨﻘﺪي ﻣﻦ ﺧــﻼل ، وﻋﻠﻰ هﺬا اﻻﺳﺎس اﻟﻤﺰاﻳﺎ اﻵﺗﻴـﺔ Increasing of zeros in the categories of the currency while lowering its purchase power creates many difficulties such as the hardship of expressing the monetary value as well as difficulties in the monetary operations and technical problems in registering statistical data, registering in accounting books, changing computing systems, settlement systems and showing the prices in long numbers which is sometimes hard for meters or digital machines to read their zeros in petrol stations or other digital machines. On this basis, the need to fix the monetary payment systems through the following characteristics: اوﻻ -ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﻤﺴﺘﻮى اﻻﻓﻘﻲ :ﺣﺬف اﻻﺻﻔﺎر اﻟﺜﻼﺛﺔ – ﻣﻠﻴﺎر دوﻻر ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺣﺬف ﺛﻼﺛﺔ اﺻﻔﺎر ﻣﻦ اﻟﻌﻤﻠﺔ 30 ﺗﺮﻟﻴﻮن دﻳﻨﺎر اﻟﻰ 30 ﺗﺤﻮﻳﻞ اﻟﺤﺎﻟﻴﺔ واﺳﺘﺒﺪاﻟﻬﺎ ﺑﻌﻤﻠﺔ ﺟﺪﻳﺪة ﻣﻤﺎ ﻳﺴﻬﻞ اﻟﺘﻌﺎﻣﻞ اﻟﺤﺴﺎﺑﻲ ﻣﻊ ارﻗﺎم هﻲ اﻗﻞ ﻋﺪدا ﻣﻮازﻧﺎت اﻟﺒﻨﻮك واﻟﺸﺮآﺎت ﻓﻀﻼ ﻋﻦ ، ﻋﻠﻰ ﺻﻌﻴﺪ ﺣﺴﺎﺑﺎت اﻟﻤﻮازﻧﺔ اﻻﺗﺤﺎدﻳﺔ ﻣﻮازﻧﺔ اﻻﺳﺮة اﻟﻨﻘﺪﻳﺔ) اﻻﻓﺮاد (دون ان ﻳﺮﺗﺐ اي ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ او ﺗﺒﺪل ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﺪﺧﻞ او اﻟﺜﺮوة اﻟﻨﻘﺪﻳﺔ ﻟﻼﺷﺨﺎص اﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ واﻟﻤﻌﻨﻮﻳﺔ ﻓﻀﻼ ﻋﻦ ﻋﺪم ﺗﺄﺛﻴﺮﻩ ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﺘﻌﺎﻗﺪات واﻻﻟﺘﺰاﻣﺎت ﺑﻴﻦ اﻻﺷﺨﺎص اﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﻴﻴﻦ واﻟﻤﻌﻨﻮﻳﻴﻦ آﺎﻓﺔ .وهﻮ ﻣﺎﻳﻄﻠﻖ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺑﺘﻮﻟﻴﺪ داﻟﺔ Homogenous رﻳﺎﺿﻴﺔ ﻣﺘﺠﺎﻧﺴﺔ ﻣﻦ اﻟﺪرﺟﺔ اﻟﺼﻔﺮ Function of Degree Zero ، ﻃﺎﻟﻤﺎ ان آﻤﻴﺔ اﻟﻨﻘﻮد اﻟﺠﺪﻳﺪة اﻻﺻﻐﺮ رﻗﻤﺎ ﺗﻐﻄﻲ ﻓﻲ اﻟﺘﺒﺎدل اﻟﺤﺰﻣﺔ اﻟﺴﻠﻌﻴﺔ ﻧﻔﺴﻬﺎ Firstly – on the horizontal level: Deleting the three zeros – Transforming 30 trillion Dinars to 30 billion Dollars by deleting three zeros from the current currency and changing it to a new currency which eases the arithmetic operation with the smaller numbers on the example of the federal budget accounts, banking and corporate accounts as well as cash family accounts (individuals) without resulting in any change or difference on the normal value of income or monetary wealth of people and also without affecting the normal value of contracts and commitments between people. This is called Homogenous Function of Degree Zero. As long as the amount of new smaller numbered money covers the trading of the same amount of products PAGE 5 David ﻓﻲ اﻟﻨﻘﻮد اﻟﻘﺪﻳﻤﺔ ذات اﻟﺮﻗﻢ اﻻآﺒﺮ .وﺑﻬﺬﻩ اﻟﻤﻨﺎﺳﺒﺔ ﻳﺸﺒﻪ Hume(1711 – 76) )وهﻮ ﻣﻦ رواد ﻋﻠﻢ اﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎد ﻣﺎ ﻗﺒﻞ اﻟﻤﺪرﺳﺔ اﻟﻜﻼﺳﻴﻜﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ آﺘﺎﺑﻪ اﻟﺸﻬﻴﺮ اﻟﻨﻘﺎش اﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻲ Political او اﻟﺠﺪل اﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻲ ( ﺗﺄﺛﻴﺮ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻳﺎت اﻻﺳﻌﺎر 1752 اﻟﺼﺎدر ﻓﻲ اﻟﻌﺎم Discourse اﻻﺳﻤﻴﺔ ﻣﻊ اﻻﺗﻔﺎع آﻤﻴﺔ اﻟﻨﻘﻮد ﻣﺜﻞ اﻻﻧﺘﻘﺎل ﻣﻦ اﻻرﻗﺎم اﻟﺮوﻣﺎﻧﻴﺔ اﻟﻰ اﻻرﻗﺎم اﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ )وهﻲ اﻻرﻗﺎم اﻻﻧﻜﻠﻴﺰﻳﺔ ﺣﺎﻟﻴًﺎ (ﻓﺄن ذﻟﻚ اﻻﻧﺘﻘﺎل ﻻﻳﻐﻴﺮ ﻣﻦ اﻟﻤﺒﺎدئ اﻻﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻟﻌﻠﻢ اﻟﺤﺴﺎب او اﻟﺮﻳﺎﺿﻴﺎت . ﻓﺄرﺗﻔﺎع آﻤﻴﺎت اﻟﻨﻘﻮد ﻳﺆدي اﻟﻰ ارﺗﻔﺎع اﻻﺳﻌﺎر ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻧﻔﺴﻬﺎ دون ﺗﺄﺛﻴﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﺘﺎﺋﺞ اﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎد اﻟﺤﻘﻴﻘﻲ as the old money having bigger numbers. This is similar to David Hume (1711-76) (who was a pioneer in economical science before the classical school. In his famous book Political Discourse issued in 1752) the effect of nominal price levels with the increase in the amount of cash is like the transfer from Roman numerals to Arabic numerals (which are the English numerals currently) so that transfer does not change the basic foundations of mathematics or accounting. The increase in the number of money leads to the increase in prices without affecting the real economic results. ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺎ -ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﻤﺴﺘﻮى اﻟﻌﻤﻮدي :اﻋﺎدة هﻴﻜﻠﺔ اﻟﻌﻤﻠﺔ وﺗﺮآﻴﺒﻬﺎ – دﻳﻨﺎر ﺗﺸﻜﻞ ﻟﻮﺣﺪهﺎ ) ﺛﻠﺜﻲ آﻤﻴﺔ اﻻوراق 25000 ﻟﻤﺎ آﺎﻧﺖ اﻟﻔﺌﺔ اﻟﻜﺒﻴﺮة اﻟﺒﺎﻟﻐﺔ اﻟﻤﺘﺪاوﻟﺔ ( ﻓﺎن اﺻﺪار ﻓﺌﺎت اآﺒﺮ ﻳﻌﻨﻲ اﺧﺘﺰال اﻻرﺑﻌﺔ ﻣﻠﻴﺎر ورﻗﺔ ﻧﻘﺪﻳﺔ اﻟﻤﺘﺪاوﻟﺔ ( ﻣﻠﻴﺎر ورﻗﺔ ﻧﻘﺪﻳﺔ . اذ ﺳﺘﺨﺘﺰل اﻟﻔﺌﺎت 1.180 ) ﺣﺎﻟﻴﺎ وﺗﺤﻮﻳﻠﻬﺎ اﻟﻰ ﻋﺪد ﻳﺴﺎوي %ﻣﻦ اﺟﻤﺎﻟﻲ اﻟﻔﺌﺎت اﻟﺠﺪﻳﺪة اﻟﻤﺼﺪرة اﻟﻰ 90 -%80 اﻟﻜﺒﻴﺮة ﻣﻦ اﻟﻌﻤﻠﺔ ﻗﺮاﺑﺔ . ( دﻳﻨﺎر ﺟﺪﻳﺪة 200،100 ،50 اﻟﺘﺪاول) ﻣﺜﻞ ﻓﺌﺎت Secondly- On the vertical level: Restructuring the currency and composing it -When the largest category 25000 Dinars is equal to (two thirds of the amount of bills in circulation) so releasing a bigger category means the reduction of four billion bills currently in circulation and transfering it to a number to (1.180) billion bills. The bigger bills will reduce the currency by about 80%-90% from the total number of new category issued for circulation (like the categories 50,100, 200 new Dinars). ﻓﺎن آﻠﻔﺔ اﻟﻤﻌﺎﻣﻼت اﻟﻨﻘﺪﻳﺔ ﺑﻴﻦ اﻻﻓﺮاد واﻟﻤﺼﺎرف وﺑﻴﻦ ، اﺳﺘﻨﺎدا اﻟﻰ ﻣﺎﺗﻘﺪم اﻻﻓﺮاد اﻧﻔﺴﻬﻢ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ ام ﻣﻌﻨﻮﻳﺔ ﺳﺘﻨﺨﻔﺾ ﺣﺘﻤﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺗﻜﺎﻟﻴﻒ اﻟﻌﺪ واﻟﻔﺮز ان اﻻوراق اﻟﻨﻘﺪﻳﺔ اﻟﻤﺘﺪاوﻟﺔ ﺗﺘﺂآﻞ ﺑﺎﻟﻤﺘﻮﺳﻂ ﺧﻼل ﻣﺪة ، واﻟﺘﺪﻗﻴﻖ. واذا ﻣﺎﻋﻠﻤﻨﺎ ﺧﻤﺲ ﺳﻨﻮات ﻣﻤﺎ ﻳﻌﻨﻲ اﺳﺘﺒﺪال آﺘﻠﺔ هﺎﺋﻠﺔ ﺿﻌﻴﻔﺔ اﻟﺘﺮآﻴﺐ وﺗﺮﺗﺐ ﺗﻜﺎﻟﻴﻒ ﻃﺒﺎﻋﻴﺔ ذات ﻣﻮاﺻﻔﺎت اﻣﻨﻴﺔ ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ وهﻮ ﻋﺐء ﺁﺧﺮ ﺗﺘﺤﻤﻠﺔ ﺳﻠﻄﺔ اﻻﺻﺪار اﻟﻨﻘﺪي وهﻮ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺨﻠﻔﺎت ﻧﻈﺎم ادارة ﻧﻘﺪﻳﺔ وﻟﺪهﺎ اﻟﺘﺪهﻮر اﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎدي اﻟﺴﺎﺑﻖ واﺻﺒﺤﺖ ﻻﺗﺘﻨﺎﺳﺐ واﻻﺳﺘﻘﺮار واﻟﺘﻘﺪم اﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎدي اﻟﻤﻨﺸﻮد Based on what was mentioned, the normal and value of monetary operation costs between individuals and banks and between individuals themselves will definitely decrease in terms of counting, sorting and auditing costs. If we knew that the bills in circulation erode in the duration of five years on average which means exchanging a big amount of weak composed mass. This results in printing costs having high security specifications and that is another burden that the monetary issuing authority bears and is one of the remnants of the monetary management system born from the previous economic deterioration and became unsuitable with stability and the ambitioned economical development. ان اﺳﺒﺎب ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ اﻟﻌﻤﻠﺔ اﻟﺮاهﻨﺔ ﻳﻌﺒﺮ ﻋﻦ ﺛﻤﺮة اﻻﺳﺘﻘﺮار اﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎدي ، ﺧﺘﺎﻣﺎ وﻧﺠﺎح ﺳﻴﺎﺳﺎت اﻟﺒﻨﻚ اﻟﻤﺮآﺰي اﻟﻌﺮاﻗﻲ ﻓﻲ اﻟﺤﻔﺎظ ﻋﻠﻰ اﻻﺳﺘﻘﺮار واﻟﻤﺘﻤﺜﻠﺔ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﻘﺮار ﺳﻌﺮ ﺻﺮف اﻟﺪﻳﻨﺎر اﻟﻌﺮاﻗﻲ وهﺒﻮط اﻟﺘﻀﺨﻢ اﻟﻰ ﻣﺮﺗﺒﺔ ﻋﺸﺮﻳﺔ واﺣﺪة وﺑﻨﺎء اﺣﺘﻴﺎﻃﻴﺎت اﺟﻨﺒﻴﺔ ﻣﺆازرة ﻟﻠﺪﻳﻨﺎر اﻟﻌﺮاﻗﻲ ﺑﻤﺴﺘﻮﻳﺎت ﻟﻢ ﻳﺴﺒﻖ ﺗﺤﻘﻴﻘﻬﺎ ﺧﻼل اﻟﺜﻼﺛﻴﻦ ﻋﺎﻣًﺎ اﻟﻤﺎﺿﻴﺔ واﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻌﺪ ﻏﻄﺎء اﻟﻌﻤﻠﺔ اﻟﻌﺮاﻗﻴﺔ . اﺿﺎﻓﺔ اﻟﻰ ﺗﺤﺴﻴﻦ ﻧﻈﺎم اﻟﻤﺪﻓﻮﻋﺎت اﻟﻨﻘﺪﻳﺔ وﺟﻌﻠﻪ ﻳﻐﺎدر اﻟﺘﺼﺎﻗﻪ وﺗﺮآﻴﺒﻪ اﻟﺮاهﻨﻴﻦ ﺑﺎﻟﻤﺎﺿﻲ واﺧﺘﻼﻻﺗﻪ اﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎدﻳﺔ واﻋﺎدة ﺑﻨـﺎءﻩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﺒﻞ اﻟﺘﻄﻮر اﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎدي وﻣﻌﻄﻴﺎﺗﻪ اﻟﺤﻘﻴﻘﻴﺔ واﻻﺳﻤﻴﺔ Finally, the reasons to change the current currency expresses the fruit of economical stability and the success of Central Bank of Iraq’s policies in preserving the stability which is shown by the stability in the exchange rate of the Iraqi Dinar, the fall of inflation to one tenth level, and building foreign equivalent to the Iraqi Dinar in levels never achieved through the last thirty days which is considered as a cover for the Iraqi currency. In addition to improving the system of monetary payments making it leave its current composition and association with the past, its economical disruption and reconstruction on the future of the economical development and its real nominal data. PAGE: 6 ﻓﻘﺪ أﻋﺪ اﻟﺒﻨﻚ اﻟﻤﺮآﺰي اﻟﻌﺮاﻗﻲ ﺳﺘﺮاﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﺑﻌﻴﺪة اﻻﺟﻞ ﻗﺎﺑﻠﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﻄﺒﻴﻖ ، ﻟﺬا ﻣﺴﺘﻘﺒﻼ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﻮاﻓﺮ اﻟﻔﺮﺻﺔ اﻟﻤﻼﺋﻤﺔ وﺑﺼﻮرة ﺗﺪرﻳﺠﻴﺔ وﻓﻖ ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻤﺎت واﺿﺤﺔ وﻟﻮاﺋﺢ ارﺷﺎدﻳﺔ ﺗﻮﻓﺮ اﻟﺤﻤﺎﻳﺔ ﻟﻠﺤﻘﻮق واﻟﻤﺼﺎﻟﺢ اﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﺑﻤﺎ ﻳﺘﻼﺋﻢ وﻣﺮﺣﻠﺔ اﻻزدهﺎر اﻟﻤﻘﺒﻠﺔ واﻟﻨﻤﻮ اﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎدي اﻟﻤﺘﻮﻗﻊ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺳﻴﺰداد ﻣﺘﻮﺳﻂ دﺧﻞ اﻟﻔﺮد ﺧﻼل اﻟﺴﻨﻮات اﻟﻘﺎدﻣﺔ اﻟﻰ أآﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺮة وﺳﻴﺨﻄﻮ اﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎد ﺧﻄﻮات ﻧﺤﻮ اﻟﺘﻘﺪم ﻣﻤﺎ ﻳﺘﻄﻠﺐ اﺻﻼﺣﺎ ﻟﻤﺨﻠﻔﺎت ﻣﺮاﺣﻞ اﻟﺘﻀﺨﻢ ورﺑﻤﺎ ﻳﺘﻄﻠﺐ ﺑﻌﺾ اﻟﺘﺸﺮﻳﻌﺎت ﺑﻬﺬا اﻟﺸﺄن That is why the Central Bank of Iraq has prepared a long-term strategy which is executable in the future when the suitable chance comes gradually under clear instructions and guidance to secure different rights and benefits suitable with the upcoming flourishing era and the expected economical growth where the average income for individuals will increase in the following years more than once and the economy will move steps forward which requires fixing of the remnants of the inflation stages and might require some constitutions for this matter.
  2. Cass Sunstein: It’s for your own good! Cass Sunstein has penned a brutally over worded article titled “It’s for your own good!” that makes the case for paternalism and nanny state government. Some people, even Jon Stewart, were outraged over Mayor Bloomberg’s banning of sodas larger than 16oz. But should they be upset? Of course not! Sunstein wrote: In Mill’s view, the problem with outsiders, including government officials, is that they lack the necessary information. Mill insists that the individual “is the person most interested in his own well-being,” and the “ordinary man or woman has means of knowledge immeasurably surpassing those that can be possessed by any one else.”When society seeks to overrule the individual’s judgment, Mill wrote, it does so on the basis of “general presumptions,” and these “may be altogether wrong, and even if right, are as likely as not to be misapplied to individual cases.” If the goal is to ensure that people’s lives go well, Mill contends that the best solution is for public officials to allow people to find their own path. Here, then, is an enduring argument, instrumental in character, on behalf of free markets and free choice in countless situations, including those in which human beings choose to run risks that may not turn out so well. Mill’s claim has a great deal of intuitive appeal. But is it right? That is largely an empirical question, and it cannot be adequately answered by introspection and intuition. In recent decades, some of the most important research in social science, coming from psychologists and behavioral economists, has been trying to answer it. That research is having a significant influence on public officials throughout the world. Many believe that behavioral findings are cutting away at some of the foundations of Mill’s harm principle, because they show that people make a lot of mistakes, and that those mistakes can prove extremely damaging Glenn was not impressed. “Let me tell you something. I made a lot of mistakes in my life and this is where we’ve gone astray. We’ve made mistakes. That’s part of life. No one is perfect. You’ll make mistakes, but because mistakes have natural consequences, you either learn from those mistakes or you perish. For instance, if I hadn’t learned from my alcoholism, I would end up like ‑‑ who’s the woman that was the country star that just passed away? Mindy McCready. I would end up like that. She couldn’t learn from her mistakes. I did. And because of my mistakes and because I learned from them, I’m better for them. I’m better off for them because I learned from them,” Glenn said. “Now let’s take it out of the personal and let’s go to the business world. Do you think anybody’s going to learn from their mistakes at the banks? Do you think anybody who is being bailed out by the federal government (has learned from their mistakes)?” “Every single one of us can look at the federal government right now and say they have present bias. They are only worrying about today and they are not worrying about the consequences of tomorrow. But that’s those of us who don’t really understand people like Cass Sunstein, that don’t really understand.” “They’re (progressives) encouraging you to live for today. Go out and spend. Help the economy. Well, they don’t. They are laying their plans against us, quite honestly, against man’s freedom. They are building and currently justifying amongst the elites, justifying a world without autonomy. They don’t have present bias. They know exactly what they’re building. They’re building the world of tomorrow. And they are telling you to live, drink and be merry today.” “Let me tell you something: I stand by the fact that I said several years ago Cass Sunstein is the most dangerous man in America because the Republicans and the Democrats like him,” he said. “People, people in the Republican Party like his choice structure because it gives them more power. People, if you believe in people, you don’t do this. I happen to believe in people, but people will get weaker the more you expect them to be weak. The more ‑‑ the less you expect them to do, the more dumb you expect them to be, the easier you make their life, the more you take away any consequences from any of their actions, they will become everything that you say they are: Dumb, weak, pathetic, and unable to make a choice.” “The problem with our country is that the people with power believe that’s exactly who you are, and you are allowing them to do it by taking the easy way. By taking and believing in choice structure. By not demanding that choice structure stops. They’re not demanding that we have a right. Instead we demand that somebody takes care of us. Somebody gives us healthcare. Well, if you’re going to pay ‑‑ if you’re going to make somebody else pay for your bad choices and your bad living, well, then there’s only one ‑‑ there’s only one way to do it. We have to stop you from making bad choices because I have to pay for your heart attack. You want to pay for your heart attack? Great. But why should I have to pay for your heart attack? Everybody will say when California slides off the cliff, the financial cliff, ‘Why should I have to pay for Californians? That was their choice.’ And if we all have to pay for California, then I guess we all have to ‑‑ we all have to be involved in California’s decisions. No, let California make their own decisions. They’re different people; they want to live a different way. Let them. If they fail, they fail. They’ll learn… unless we all gather together and bail them out. Then they won’t learn and eventually we’ll all burn down… together.” http://www.glennbeck.com/2013/02/20/cass-sunstein-it%E2%80%99s-for-your-own-good/
  3. MagPul, Magazines and Colorado House Bill 13-1224 by David Reeder on February 19, 2013 · 13 comments Yesterday, as you may already be aware, the Colorado House of Representatives held the ‘third reading’ for HB 13-1224, a measure to limit magazine capacity. The vote passed 34:31 and will now be pushed on to the Colorado State Senate. Other gun control issues aside (though by no means to marginalize them) this will be of significance to Kit Up! readers because it centers around MagPul Industries Corporation, manufacturer of the PMag. MagPul is based in Erie, Colorado, and will obviously be impacted severely if the 13-1224 becomes law (this despite transparently self-serving last minute attempts on the part of supporting legislators to provide an exemption for manufacture). The significance of this lies on several levels, from that of the national debate on gun control to the impact on an individual’s ability to purchase the kit he or she wants at a time when magazines are already in short supply (and potentially those already owned). As you might expect, it is difficult for me to write in such a way as to distinguish reporting from advocacy. In the larger context of the debate and from the perspective of constructive support (on whichever side) I think it is vital for all involved to leave visceral reaction aside and attempt to address all aspects as respectfully as possible. Unfortunately there seems to be little willingness to do that. This is without a doubt an extremely polarizing issue that has been given very little opportunity for true discussion, which by no means eliminates the need for rational discourse. This particular article is going to address HB 13-1224 specifically, though it must at least tangentially discuss the three other bills that were approved yesterday.There are a number of reasons the successful passage of 1224 and its fellows are significant, not least of which are concerns as to its Constitutionality and its importance to the national debate. The White House is keeping a close eye on the status of these bills; according to the Denver Post, VPOTUS Biden was in communication with several Democratic Representatives in Colorado on Friday. MagPul is a ‘household name’ in our demographic and it is at the center of the 13-1224 furor and despite some odd, even silly allegations to the contrary they’ve made it very clear they will halt operations and move to a different state if the law passes. MagPul was founded in 1999 by a Marine Corps veteran and has become virtually synonymous for polymer magazines, magazine accessories and what is called firearm ‘furniture’ in our tactical parlance. MagPul is a self-described “proud Colorado company” that has a significant economic impact in the state (though estimates vary, most agree that it would bring $80-$90 million dollars to the Colorado economy in 2013, not counting payroll). 13-1224 bears more than a passing similarity to the New York Secure Ammunition and Firearms Enforcement Act of 2013, Missouri’s recently introduced House Bill 545 and a package of 10 bills put forth by Darrell Steinberg, D-Sacramento in the state of California (and the one in Minnesota, and Washington, et al). As with other such discussions at both State and Federal level, HB-1224 and its fellows are either being both hailed as a common sense life saving measure or declaimed as an impractical, unenforceable intrusion on the Second Amendment with no impact on public safety. The progress of these bills, and 13-224 in particular, are being closely watched across the country by both pro-gun control and anti-gun control people alike as a key indicator in the national debate. [Note: The New York Safe Act limited magazine capacity to 7 rounds, broadened the definition of the term ‘assault weapon’ and enacted other steps making it one of the most restrictive gun laws in the country. Missouri’s HB-1224 is similar in many ways and includes one phrase in particular that makes it appear providing justification and cause for firearm confiscation in any cases where the weapons in question are not removed from the state or rendered inoperable within 90 days.] The four bills on their way to the Senate now are HB 13-1229, which would require a background check for all gun transactions; House Bill 13-1226, which would eliminate concealed carry on ‘higher education’ campuses and college premises; HB 13-1228, which would institute a fee on background checks to cover costs incurred by the Colorado Bureau of Investigation (CBI) processing all firearm purchases (estimated to be approximately $1.6 million) and perhaps the most controversial and hotly debated one of the four, HB 13-1224, which now limits magazine capacity to 15 rounds. This number appears to be arbitrary, and wasn’t always certain. There was a period of time when they discussed an 11 round capacity. HB 13-1224 was sponsored by Rep. Rhonda Fields (D House District 42, Aurora), who described it as an “incremental approach” to limiting gun violence, clearly referring in her closing remarks to more measures to come—something that will clearly worry opponents of gun control in Colorado and other states. Her overriding concern, as she explains it, was not to provide a ‘feel good measure’ but to legitimately reduce gun violence. “Our schools are sacred places, our malls our sacred places, our churches are sacred places,” she said. “…no one should have these high capacity magazines to kill as many people as they can…” State Rep. Edward Vigil (D-Fort Garland) disagreed, saying he believed ‘high capacity magazines’ were being “demonized” and that that CO should vote no on the measure. He spoke to the fact that criminals were unlikely to abide by a law and any case and suggested instead a law against criminal gangs and efforts to improve mental health efforts, urging a no vote and asking that no vote be made on emotion. Other opponents of the bill articulated various studies, including those by the CDC and the NIJ, that show no correlation between gun control laws and the crime rate. They also pointed out flaws in the bill that would make it unenforceable and impractical and its disregard for the Second Amendment, and criticized the inconsistencies and hypocrisy of a last minute provision that would allow the manufacture of such magazines in the state despite their being illegal for Colorado citizens. This adjustment has been largely seen as an effort to retain the advantage of having Colorado based magazine manufacturers in the local while removing them from the hands of Colorado citizens. “Apparently, they (high-capacity magazines) are not instruments of destruction when they’re purchased outside the borders of Colorado,” said Mark Waller, R-Colorado Springs. “[This law]…will not limit our Second Amendment Rights, it will infringe them,” said State Rep. Jared Wright (R-Fruita). Wright is a former law enforcement officer who spoke at length to the fallacy of believing magazine limitations would increase public safety. Passage of the third reading in the House today was preceded by ‘second reading’ on Friday, where over six hours were spent debating 13-1224 on the floor. Opponents of the bill fear it is likely to be approved by the Senate and become law. Kit Up readers who follow social media sites and ‘tactical news’ sources know opposition to the measure has largely been led by MagPul. MagPul disagrees with any assertions that so-called “high capacity magazines” (which might more properly be called standard capacity magazines) contribute to gun violence and that any measures to restrict them would be not only improper Constitutionally but dramatically significant economically—not just to their company, which they readily acknowledge, but to the greater community of with they are a part. “We have a pretty uphill battle in the Senate,” says MagPul’s Duane Liptak, Director of Product Management and Marketing. “We’re making our arguments, explaining that this bill doesn’t improve public safety in any way shape or form, that it isn’t practical or enforceable and…that it doesn’t hurt anyone except those who are law abiding, but…” Rep. Jared Wright ® addressed this same concern. “What is the functionality of this?” Rep. Wright asked the assembled Colorado House. “How does this improve public safety in the State of Colorado?” In his and others’ opinion, magazine restrictions would do nothing to actually improve the safety of Coloradans, and that there was no way to determine the legality of a magazine in question anyway—no way to identify whether a magazine had been manufactured prior to the proposed law, or if it had been purchased in Utah (for instance) and brought back into the state. He went on to chastise both sides of the debate, expressing his distaste for the “…the invocation of the images of dead children on both sides…” when arguing their case. Rep. Claire Levy (D-Boulder) acknowledged she had no study showing definitively that magazines would “stop the killing”, but “[she believes it to be]…a constructive and necessary first step.” She addressed what she described as “straw man arguments” like vehicle deaths and tractor rollovers by articulating methods developed to counter them, such as airbags and seatbelts. “High capacity magazine are commonly used in gun crimes and police murders [and are involved in] at least14-26% of gun crimes,” said Beth McCann (D – House District 8, Denver). She went on to describe the use of “high capacity magazines” in the Aurora theater shooting, citing the use of a 100 round drum in that event, and then listed a series of homicides she advised involved such magazines. Rep. McCann describes the reduction of magazine capacity to a maximum of 15 rounds as a common sense limitation. MagPul has made it clear they will leave Colorado if the law passes, in their social media and a press release. They are receiving widespread support across the firearm and tactical industry for their stand and are being lauded for their leadership. In addition to empirical arguments about possible practical results on public safety and violence MagPul has addressed the financial repercussions with the voice of a proud Colorado company. “We’ve tried to make this argument from an economic standpoint,” Liptak explains, “and it [the decision to move manufacturing out of Colorado] was not an easy decision to make. This will be an incredible disruption for our employees if we have to displace…it wasn’t made lightly, but we have a moral obligation to do it. Rep. Lori Saine (R-House District 63), in whose district MagPul is located, spoke succinctly after a short break. “This bill is a jobs killer,” she said, “I urge a no vote.” MagPul employs 200 people directly, and counting sub-contractors and service providers in the Denver area provides employment to at least another 400 jobs. Not counting payroll, they put $46 million into the Colorado economy in 2012 and is projected to increase that to an estimated $85 million in 2013. I spoke with Rep. Saine after Friday’s debate and she clarified that number. “It would actually take a projected $98 million out of the state over the next year,” she said. When I asked if the bill’s proponents had ever addressed the economic implications she and other legislators had brought up, she replied “Of course not, there’s nothing to say.” Though I watched several hours of the debate on Friday and more yesterday, I never heard proponents of the bill address the economic ramifications. To be fair, they may be taking the stance that a reduction in violence is more important than monetary considerations, but if so it would have been nice for them to articulate that. Sadly, given the hyperbolae and some factual inconsistencies I observed, it seems more likely they just didn’t want to be on record making such statements in a time when the entire economy is lagging and unemployment is so high. “They did put an exemption in for manufacturers,” Liptak says, “but that’s not something MagPul can do, not from an ethical standpoint or a business standpoint. Citizens can’t own our products but we’ll continue to make them and just ship them out of state? We can’t do that, it’s not right, and besides people would boycott us out of principal and…we don’t blame them. We aren’t bluffing, though apparently some legislators believe we are; we’ll have production up and running before the enactment of the bill if that is what it comes to.” “This bill does not require or force any company to leave Colorado,” Rep. McCann noted. “The bill explicitly now indicates the companies can continue to manufacture these and deliver them outside the state…” To that statement Mr. Liptak responded, “If this passes, remaining in Colorado is just not an option for us.” Asked where they might go, he would not say for sure, explaining, “We’ve been courted by several states with amenable gun laws and the sort of culture we want to be a part of with our tax dollars and jobs. We love Colorado, the culture personal responsibility and personal freedom here…it’s now just…certainly not in keeping with the values of the great American west.” Pro gun control social media sites have widely referred to the successful passage of these four bills, in particular the magazine restrictions, to the next step towards law as a hopeful precursor to similar efforts in other states or at the Federal level. The Denver Post has reported that Vice President Joe Biden contacted several Colorado Democratic lawmakers on Friday after 13-1224 passed second reading. Tony Exum (D-Colorado Springs), described their conversation. “He said it would send a strong message to the rest of the country that a Western state had passed gun-control bills,” Exum said. As of this writing my e-mails to Representative Fields, private messages left on her Facebook page and phone calls have all gone unanswered. MagPul has not decided where they will be moving if 13-1224 becomes law, but no matter what happens, even if the measure fails to pass the Colorado Senate, but whatever happens things are going to become even more controversial—and PMags and MagPul furniture even harder to get. Read more: http://kitup.military.com/2013/02/magpul-magazines-colorado-house.html#ixzz2LRIJQ848 Kit Up!
  4. Fancy. But it's gonna take some time to figure this out. Kinda missing my old friend with the old format. I'll get used to it.
  5. Government ‘Orwellian’: Proposed Gun Law in Washington State Calls on Police to Inspect the Homes of ‘Assault Weapon’ Owners Feb. 18, 2013 5:35pm Jason Howerton Holly Blevins holds an AR-15 semiautomatic rifle December 5, 2012 in Berryville, Virginia. Credit: AFP/Getty Images With each proposed anti-gun bill put forth by Democrats across the U.S., the demands appear to be getting more and more restrictive on gun owners. While the Obama administration pushes for a ban on so-called “assault weapons” and universal background checks, Democrats in both California and Missouri have proposed legislation that would result in possible confiscation of semi-automatic rifles. Now, Democratic lawmakers in Olympia, Wash. last week introduced legislation that would allow county sheriffs to inspect the homes of semi-automatic rifle owners once a year. Seattle Times columnist Danny Westneat describes the move as “Orwellian.” The proposed bill, Senate Bill 5737, would ban the sale of semi-automatic weapons that use detachable magazines and magazines that contain more than 10 rounds. It would also subject law-abiding gun owners to random searches by a county sheriff. “In order to continue to possess an assault weapon that was legally possessed on the effective date of this section, the person possessing shall … safely and securely store the assault weapon. The sheriff of the county may, no more than once per year, conduct an inspection to ensure compliance with this subsection,” the bill states. “They always say, we’ll never go house to house to take your guns away. But then you see this, and you have to wonder,” Seattle trial lawyer Lance Palmer told the Seattle Times. “I’m a liberal Democrat — I’ve voted for only one Republican in my life,” Palmer added. “But now I understand why my right-wing opponents worry about having to fight a government takeover.” . He also said it’s this type of radical bill that “drives people into the arms of the NRA.” One of the bill’s sponsors, State Sen. Adam Kline (D-Seattle), told the Seattle Times that he didn’t properly vet the bill prior to jumping on board. He claims he didn’t realize the bill authorized police searches. “I made a mistake,” he said. “I frankly should have vetted this more closely.” The legislation’s main sponsor, Sen. Ed Murray (D-Seattle) also blasted the search provision written in his bill, saying it is likely unconstitutional. “I have to admit that shouldn’t be in there,” he said. Murray also explained that an assault weapons ban isn’t likely to pass anyhow and the bill was intended to be a blueprint for gun legislation in the future. With the search provision included, the bill has very little chance of passing. It wasn’t immediately clear which lawmaker wrote the search provision into the bill. To read the entire bill, click here. Link – UPDATE: Following up on a tip from a reader, TheBlaze has discovered that Democrats in Minnesota are also pushing for a gun confiscation bill using almost identical language as the bill proposed in Missouri. From MN H.F. No. 241, as introduced – 88th Legislative Session (2013-2014) Posted on Jan 31, 2013: 10.20 Sec. 7. PERSONS POSSESSING ASSAULT WEAPONS ON EFFECTIVE DATE ACT; REQUIRED ACTIONS. Any person who, on February 1, 2013, legally owns or is in possession of an assault weapon has until September 1, 2013, to do any of the following without being subject to prosecution under Minnesota Statutes, section 624.7133: (1) remove the weapon from the state; (2) surrender the weapon to a law enforcement agency for destruction; (3) render the weapon permanently inoperable; or (4) if eligible, register the weapon as provided in Minnesota Statutes, section 624.7133, subdivision 5. EFFECTIVE DATE.This section is effective the day following final enactment. This story has been updated. Featured image via shutterstock.com http://www.theblaze.com/stories/2013/02/18/orwellian-proposed-gun-law-in-washington-state-calls-on-police-to-inspect-the-homes-of-assault-weapon-owners/
  6. February 18, 2013 at 8:00 am The Next Generation of Surveillance; You Will Not Be Able to Hide The technology of surveillance drones is so advanced that high resolutions images of something as small as six inches can be observed from 17,000 feet. Read more: http://conservativevideos.com/2013/02/the-next-generation-of-surveillance-you-will-not-be-able-to-hide/#ixzz2LIQVghgA
  7. February 18, 2013 at 8:21 am The Gun Control Ad that Clear Channel Refused to Air Clear Channel radio blocked this gun control ad from airing. Is there something they’re afraid of? Read more: http://conservativevideos.com/2013/02/the-gun-control-ad-that-clear-channel-refused-to-air/#ixzz2LIJLMiCu History of the Come And Take It flag related to gun control, gun bans, and confiscation .
  8. You can have California!! But one of your first steps, if not the very first, would be to rid the state of All Politicians!!!! Just don't extradite them here.
  9. :lol:/>/> :lol:/>/> :lol:/>/> Shab's, you reminded me of a joke I heard years ago. I searched, and though it's not exactly as I remember, it's close enough.... Dear white fella Couple things you should know When I born, I black When I grow up, I black When I go in sun, I black When I cold, I black When I scared, I black When I sick, I black And when I die, I still black. You white fella When you born, you pink When you grow up, you white When you go in sun, you red When you cold, you blue When you scared, you yellow When you sick, you green And when you die, you grey. And you have the cheek to call me colored?????
  10. If not confiscation, what do you think would happen to you and your weapon, if your still in possession of the weapon after Sept 2013? I think for one to think "confiscation" as well as jail time, would not be far fetched.
  11. Missouri Democrats Introduce Legislation to Confiscate Firearms – Gives Gun Owners 90 Days to Turn in Weapons Posted by Jim Hoft on Thursday, February 14, 2013, 9:52 AM Missouri Democrats introduced an anti-gun bill which would turn law-abiding firearm owners into criminals. They will have 90 days to turn in their guns if the legislation is passed. Dana Loesch Radio reported on the new legislation being pushed by Missouri Democrats: Any person who, prior to the effective date of this law, was legally in possession of an assault weapon or large capacity magazine shall have ninety days from such effective date to do any of the following without being subject to prosecution. Here’s part of the Democratic proposal in Missouri: 4. Any person who, prior to the effective date of this law, was legally in possession of an assault weapon or large capacity magazine shall have ninety days from such effective date to do any of the following without being subject to prosecution: (1) Remove the assault weapon or large capacity magazine from the state of Missouri; (2) Render the assault weapon permanently inoperable; or (3) Surrender the assault weapon or large capacity magazine to the appropriate law enforcement agency for destruction, subject to specific agency regulations. 5. Unlawful manufacture, import, possession, purchase, sale, or transfer of an assault weapon or a large capacity magazine is a class C felony. UPDATE: It’s not just Missouri… Minnesota Democrats Introduce Law to Confiscate Guns… Using Same Language as Missouri Democratshttp://www.thegatewaypundit.com/2013/02/missouri-democrats-intruduce-legislation-to-confiscate-firearms-gives-gunowners-90-days-to-turn-in-guns/
  12. Another sad story that strengthens the fact that gun control does not work. Indiana Guardsman Gunned Down While Shielding 2-Year-Old Son February 13, 2013 11:08 PM Reporting Dana Kozlov http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=P8LItKi2Mis EAST CHICAGO (CBS) — Home from Afghanistan for just five months, 25-year-old Indiana National Guardsman Willie Cook was gunned down while shielding his two-year-old son. CBS 2′s Dana Kozlov reports its another case of mistaken identity, with no one in custody. Two-year-old Antoine Cook uses a toy cell phone to talk to his father. It’s all he has. “And to know that your 2 year old has to pretend to talk to his dad,” said Laquana Norwood. On February 2, Cook, was shot and killed while in a car near his grandmother’s East Chicago house where he was taking Antoine for a visit. The veteran was found on top of his little boy, shielding him from the 15 bullets that pierced the car. ” He saved his son he made sure that before he left the last thing he did make sure his son was okay,” said Norwood. Antoine was hit, too, in the left leg. Another bullet skimmed his right and a third grazed the toddler’s head. Police believe Cook’s murder was a case of mistaken identity, possible retaliation for another shooting just days before. The couple was planning their wedding, and a future. “Too come home not even five months later and for your life to be just taken away like that,” said Norwood. Norwood believes someone knows something and she wants them to speak up. Incidentally, Sgt. Cook was a member of national guard unit 713, the same unit that lost six members in Afghanistan last year. Cook also has another child. There is a fund set up to help the family with costs. For more information, go to www.soliciting-of-any-kind-is-not-allowed.com/willie-cook-trust-fund http://chicago.cbslocal.com/2013/02/13/indiana-guardsman-gunned-down-while-shielding-2-year-old-son/
  13. Soros Said to Make $1 Billion Since November on Yen Bet By Katherine Burton - Feb 14, 2013 9:20 AM ET George Soros made almost $1 billion since November from bets that the yen would tumble, according to a person close to the billionaire’s $24 billion family office. The Japanese wager helped the firm return about 10 percent last year and 5 percent so far this year, said the person, who asked not to be named because the firm is private. The yen has weakened 17 percent versus the dollar since about the start of the fourth quarter, the worst performance over a similar period since 1985. The yen slumped and Japanese stocks rallied as Prime Minister Shinzo Abe pressed the Bank of Japan to introduce additional stimulus measures. BOJ Governor Masaaki Shirakawa and two deputies will step down next month, allowing Abe to pick leaders to implement his plan for expanded monetary easing. Scott Bessent, chief investment officer at New York-based Soros Fund Management LLC, also has 10 percent of the firm’s internally managed portfolio betting on rising shares in Japan, said the person. Japan’s benchmark Nikkei 225 stock index has jumped about 28 percent since the end of September. Bessent worked for Soros in 1992 when Soros and his chief strategist Stan Druckenmiller made a $10 billion bet that the Bank of England would be forced to devalue the pound. That wager netted $1 billion. At the time Soros’s Quantum fund was $3.3 billion. Bessent left the firm in 2000, and returned to be CIO in 2011. Michael Vachon, a spokesman for the firm, said he couldn’t comment on the trades, which were reported yesterday by the Wall Street Journal. To contact the reporter on this story: Katherine Burton in New York at kburton@bloomberg.net To contact the editor responsible for this story: Christian Baumgaertel at cbaumgaertel@bloomberg.net http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2013-02-14/soros-said-to-make-1-billion-since-november-on-yen-bet.html
  14. Parents Complain About School Ad Excluding Whites From Tutoring Program February 13, 2013 6:18 PM (credit: CBS) AURORA, Colo. (CBS4) – A school principal said no white children were allowed at an after-school tutoring program, and now some parents call it discrimination. The principal at Mission Viejo Elementary in Aurora sent a letter telling parents the program is only for students of color. Parents CBS4 talked with said they were shocked to see, in this day and age, what they consider to be segregation. “I was infuriated. I didn’t understand why they would include or exclude certain groups,” said parent Nicole Cox, who is white. Cox’s 10-year-old daughter needs tutoring. After receiving the notice, other parents complained to the school’s principal, Andre Pearson. “We have come so far in all of these years to show everybody that everyone is equal, that everyone should be treated equally … this is a form of bullying,” Cox said. Before Cox could complain to the school, Pearson contacted her directly. His voicemail only seemed to reinforce the segregated tutoring idea. “This is Andre Pearson. It’s focused for and designed for children of color, but certainly, if we have space for other kids who have needs, we can definitely meet those needs,” Pearson told Cox in the voicemail. http://denver.cbslocal.com/2013/02/13/parents-complain-about-school-ad-for-colored-only-tutoring-program/ http://weaselzippers.us/2013/02/14/colorado-school-bans-white-students-from-after-school-tutoring-programs/
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