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Iraqi Prime Minister discusses economic reform efforts with a representative of the World Bank missionBy yota691
Iraqi Prime Minister discusses economic reform efforts with a representative of the World Bank mission
Iraqi Prime Minister, Mustafa Al-Kazemi, during his meeting with the Special Representative of the World Bank Mission in Iraq, Ramzi Numan May 12, 2020 03:35 PM Mubasher: The Iraqi Prime Minister, Mustafa Al-Kazemi, received today, Tuesday, the Special Representative of the World Bank Mission in Iraq, Ramzi Numan .
Ways have been discussed to coordinate work between the Iraqi government and international institutions to overcome the economic crisis, according to a statement of the Information Office of the Prime Minister.
Al-Kazemi also discussed with the Special Representative of the World Bank Mission in Iraq work to launch economic reform efforts, which would encourage investment and reconstruction, enhance the service reality, and provide job opportunities .
The former Iraqi Minister of Planning, Nuri Sabah Al-Dulaimi, received on April 28 last , the representative of the World Bank in Iraq, Ramzi Numan, and his accompanying delegation.
During the meeting, a number of issues of common concern were discussed, and ways of strengthening national efforts facing the emerging epidemic of the Corona Virus pandemic.
Noaman affirmed that the World Bank is ready to provide possible support and restructure the loans granted to Iraq, in a way that contributes to protecting the vulnerable sectors of society.
By George Hayduke
By Christine Lagarde, Managing Director, International Monetary Fund
Fourth Arab Fiscal Forum, Dubai
February 9, 2019
Good morning—Sabah Al-Khair! I am delighted to be back in Dubai, this city of tomorrow, where you—its economic leaders—are dedicated to realizing the vision of a better tomorrow.
This vision is predicated on prosperity that is shared by all, benefiting the poor and the middle class, citizens and immigrants alike; and opportunities that are open to all, including women. It is a vision of fairness over cronyism and partiality, and of trust that government policy is oriented toward the common good.
This is a big vision. But as Sheikh Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum once said “The bigger your vision, the bigger your achievement will be…we cannot let fear keep us small. We have to be brave to be big."
As you know so well, fiscal policy plays a vital role in creating and nurturing this vision of sustainable and inclusive growth—especially as encapsulated in the Sustainable Development Goals. This is because we need fiscal space for spending on health, education, social protection, and public investment—all key priorities in this region.
This is why I wanted to come back to the Arab Fiscal Forum—my fourth time now. In past years, I talked in detail about fiscal policy—the spending and revenue measures needed to achieve sustainable and inclusive growth. This year, I want to go one level deeper—into the foundations of fiscal policy and good fiscal management.
Because without a stable foundation, even the best policies can flounder. Without a stable foundation, fiscal policy will lack credibility. In this vein, I will address two key pillars of good fiscal management: (i) strong fiscal frameworks; and (ii) good governance and transparency.
Prelude: Global and regional context
Before I do this, let me say a few words about the broader economic context bearing on fiscal policy in the region. Unfortunately, the region has yet to fully recover from the global financial crisis and other big economic dislocations over the past decade. Among oil importers, growth has picked up, but it is still below pre-crisis levels. Fiscal deficits remain high, and public debt has risen rapidly—from 64 percent of GDP in 2008 to 85 percent of GDP a decade later. Public debt now exceeds 90 percent of GDP in nearly half of these countries.
The oil exporters have not fully recovered from the dramatic oil price shock of 2014. Modest growth continues, but the outlook is highly uncertain—reflecting in part the need for countries to shift rapidly toward renewable energy over the new few decades, in line with the Paris Agreement. With revenues down, fiscal deficits are only slowly declining—despite significant reforms on both the spending and revenue sides, including the introduction of VAT and excise taxes. This has led to a sharp increase in public debt—from 13 percent of GDP in 2013 to 33 percent in 2018.
At this juncture, the global expansion is weakening, and risks are rising. Just a few weeks ago, we released our revised forecasts. We now think that the global economy will grow by 3.5 percent this year, 0.2 percentage points below what we expected in October. And risks are up, given escalating trade tensions and tightening financial conditions. Unsurprisingly, a weaker global environment has knock-on effects on the region through a variety of channels—trade, remittances, capital flows, commodity prices, and financing conditions.
The bottom line: the economic path ahead for the region is challenging. This makes the task of fiscal policy that much harder, which in turn makes it even more important to build strong foundations to anchor fiscal policy.
1. Fiscal Frameworks
The first building block of this foundation is a good fiscal framework. By this I mean the set of laws, institutional arrangements, and procedures needed to achieve a country’s fiscal policy objectives. Such a framework allows governments to map out budgets over the medium term in a way that reflects clear, consistent, and credible goals.
There is scope to improve fiscal frameworks in this region. Some of the weaknesses are short-termism and insufficient credibility.
On short-termism: given that inclusive and sustainable growth is an inherently medium-term goal, fiscal policy needs a medium-term orientation. Focusing on the immediate horizon makes it harder to implement critical but longer-term reforms in such areas as tackling high public wage bills, designing effective social protection systems, and getting rid of harmful fuel subsidies. Short-termism implies that fiscal policy amplifies rather than tames the waves of booms and busts—making it more difficult to achieve sustainable and inclusive growth.
Turning to fiscal credibility: I am referring to such factors as large amounts of spending kept off-budget and poor risk management. Across the region, it is common for sovereign wealth funds to directly finance projects, bypassing the normal budget process. And state-owned enterprises in some countries have high levels of borrowing—again, outside of the budget. Addressing these fiscal risks would not only enhance budget credibility and transparency but would help keep a lid on corruption. Budgetary credibility also calls for better risk management, with a more comprehensive budget based on realistic forecasts.
The good news is that numerous countries are already strengthening their fiscal frameworks—many with IMF assistance. Just to give some examples:
Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, UAE, Sudan, Qatar, and Lebanon have all set up macro-fiscal units—a useful first step in strengthening the fiscal framework. Algeria has recently adopted a new budget law with a strong medium-term orientation, and Bahrain has introduced a fiscal program designed to achieve balance over the medium term. Mauritania, Morocco, Jordan, and Lebanon are making great progress with medium-term public investment planning and execution. Egypt now publishes a fiscal risk statement with its budget and produces an internal in-year budget risk assessment. The UAE too is rolling out a fiscal risk management project—with the IMF’s help—and will produce its first fiscal stress test this year. There is scope for further improvement. Perhaps the oil exporters could follow the example of other resource-rich countries such as Chile and Norway in using fiscal rules to protect key priorities such as social spending from commodity price volatility.
Strong fiscal frameworks have other important benefits. They form the basis for sound debt management. They also allow for better coordination between fiscal and monetary policies, so that the two arms of macroeconomic management work together, not at cross purposes.
2. Good Governance and Transparency
Let me now turn to the second pillar of good fiscal management—good governance and transparency. In this context, governance refers to the institutional frameworks and practices of the public sector. Strong institutions are crucial for legitimacy, for fostering a clearer understanding of policy objectives among citizens, enhancing their voice, and generating buy-in for fiscal policy.
On the other hand, as many of you have said, weak institutions imply a weak policy foundation that could crack and crumble—because there is inadequate legitimacy and public accountability. Even worse, these cracks could also let corruption creep in. And you know so well, this is social poison—it feeds discord, disengagement, and disillusionment, especially among the young. The word corruption, after all, comes from Latin root for rotting, breaking apart—disintegration. And the word in Arabic, fasad, also connotes this idea of rotting or coming undone.
Corruption is the great disruptor of fiscal policy. Without trust in the fairness of the tax system, it becomes harder to raise the revenue needed for critical spending on health, education, and social protection. And governments might be tempted to favor white elephant projects instead of investments in people and productive potential. Add this up, and we have a recipe for unsustainable fiscal policy combined with social discord.
This a global issue—relevant for large and small countries, advanced and low-income economies, and the public and private sectors. Given this, it is no surprise that IMF research found that weak governance and corruption are associated with significantly lower growth, investment, FDI, and tax revenues—and higher inequality and exclusion.
Specifically, we found that improving on an index of corruption and governance by moving from the bottom quarter to the mean is associated with an increase in the investment-to-GDP ratio of 1.5–2 percentage points and a bump up in annual GDP per capita growth by half a percentage point or more.  We will have more analysis in the upcoming Fiscal Monitor, which will be devoted to the topic of the fiscal costs of corruption and the role of fiscal institutions.
What is the solution to weak governance and corruption? In the fiscal domain, it calls for heightened fiscal transparency—shining a light on all aspects of the budget and the public accounts. This would provide a more accurate picture of the fiscal position and prospects, the long-term costs and benefits of any policy changes, and the potential fiscal risks that might throw them off course. This region has some room for improvement here.
We know that these kinds of reforms pay off. Take the case of Georgia, for example. Until 2003, it was seen as one of the most corrupt countries in the world. But after that, it reformed its institutions and cracked down on corruption. This, along with tax reform, led to immediate improvements. Tax revenues increased from 12 percent of GDP in 2003 to 25 percent of GDP in 2008, as taxpayers had greater faith in the fairness of the system.
I should note that the IMF has been stepping up its engagement in the area of governance and corruption. Last year, we put in place a new framework predicated on a more systematic, evenhanded, effective, and candid engagement on these issues with member countries. We will be reaching out to leaders in this region to discuss how we can work together to implement this framework.
With better governance, we can replace the “disintegration” of corruption with the “integration” of all into the productive economy. We can replace fasad with islah—reforms to set things right, to reconcile people with one another.
Let me wrap up. I have argued this morning that good fiscal policy requires good institutional foundations. And solid foundations in areas such as fiscal frameworks and governance give citizens confidence that fiscal policy serves the good of all, not just the wealthy or the well-connected.
Let me end with some wise words attributed to the great Ibn Khaldun, “He who finds a new path is a pathfinder, even if the trail has to be found again by others; and he who walks far ahead of his contemporaries is a leader.”
You are the pathfinders, the leaders, the visionaries. We hope that we can give useful guidance, but we look to you to find the right path to make this vision a reality.
 More specifically, those gains are associated with moving from the 25thpercentile to the 50th percentile in an index on corruption and governance.
IMF Laying the foundations
Deep differences stand in the way of approving the draft budget 2018 House of Representatives "Internet" Economy News Baghdad:
Large differences within the political blocs on the draft budget bill 2018, which will affect the economic policy of the government during the current year, according to specialists, expecting not to pass the budget in the coming days because of the intensity of the dispute between the decision-makers in the House of Representatives.
The Ministry of Finance instructed all ministries during the past month to cover their needs through the use of the approved exchange mechanism, which is 112 to face the non-adoption of the draft budget for 2018.
The parliamentary economic committee said that the non-adoption of the budget caused by the delay of the Council of Ministers to send a draft budget law and synchronized with the beginning of the legislative holiday.
The committee member, Najeeb Najib, said in a statement to "Economy News" that the reason for delaying the Council of Ministers to send the budget law to the House of Representatives, is the high oil prices have estimated the price of a barrel of $ 43 and now sold at $ 58, which prompted the government to reduce the deficit to 13 Trillion dinars after it was 23 trillion dinars.
Najib expressed her displeasure at the adoption of 12.6 percent of the province of the budget of 2018, saying at the same time that it was in accordance with the formula of "overwhelming".
She added that 12.6 percent is not enough to pay salaries in general, because the region needs 889 billion dinars a month to pay, while the ratio will provide 450 billion dinars only.
And on the losses resulting from the delayed adoption of the budget, the member of the Economic Committee, the losses are not large because the origin of investment expenditures set up for the establishment of service projects do not constitute more than 25% of the budget, most of which loans and some of them ratified in 2017.
Noting that the sovereign expenditure took a large part of the budget of 2018 to reach 45%, as well as the availability of degrees of employment but not able to cope with unemployment.
On the other hand, the Dean of the Faculty of Management and Economics, Mitham Laibi, in a statement to "Economy News" that "losses caused by delaying the adoption of the budget, will be based on the salary and salaries, because it is the first component of the budget, which weakens the investment side.
He added that the delay caused by the president of the conflict between the political blocs for the purposes of electoral propaganda and try each of them to review "political muscles."
"All political arguments have nothing to do with any economic fundamentals aimed at developing the Iraqi economy," he said.
The federal budget estimated at 108 trillion dinars, with a deficit of 13 trillion dinars, and saw the reduction of the share of the Kurdistan region from 17% to 12.67%.
"The first loser of the postponement of the budget is the Iraqi people, and the postponement of their ratification is a delay for the investment side and a semi-disruption of the operational side," said the head of the Iraqi Economists Association, Abdul Hussein al-Yasiri.
He explained that it is not losses by the delay is the management of the investment side and that the budget is a law on the basis of time limits, every day delay this law is lost investment opportunity on the Iraqi economy.
While more than 4 million people are employed by the private sector, many of whom depend on the budget for their work.
Views 217 Date Added 06/01/2018
Saleh calls on the World Bank to suppor t development projects in Iraq
Thursday, November 29,
Alsumaria News / Baghdad called on the President of the Republic , Barham Salih, Thursday, World Bank for the Middle East and North Africa, to support social and economic development projects in Iraq, stressing the importance of achieving financial, monetary and economic stability in the country.
The President of the Republic, in a statement received by Alsumaria News, a copy of it, said that "President Barham Salih received at the Peace Palace in Baghdad this afternoon, World Bank Vice President for the Middle East and North Africa Farid Belhadj, accompanied by Regional Director of the World Bank for Central Asia Saroj Kumar Jha" .
He pointed out the importance of the World Bank's support for social and economic development projects in Iraq, as well as appropriate reforms, combating corruption, the necessity of developing and diversifying the sources of the national economy and ensuring the requirements of reconstruction.
"The achievement of financial, monetary and economic stability in Iraq is not only a goal but also a basis for political stability and an important strategic project for sustainable development and civil development in the country," Barham Saleh said.
For his part, the World Bank Vice President for the Middle East and North Africa said that "the World Bank is determined to support the Iraqi economy positively and work to support partnership with Iraqi financial institutions by increasing areas of cooperation and the adoption of better investment resources and energies."
By Adam Montana
Statement by an IMF Mission on Iraq
October 12, 2016
End-of-Mission press releases include statements of IMF staff teams that convey preliminary findings after a visit to a country. The views expressed in this statement are those of the IMF staff and do not necessarily represent the views of the IMF’s Executive Board. Based on the preliminary findings of this mission, staff will prepare a report that, subject to management approval, will be presented to the IMF's Executive Board for discussion and decision.
Iraq has made progress on completing economic reforms under an IMF-supported program The Iraqi authorities and the staff of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) continued discussions in Washington during October 6–10, 2016 on the first review of Iraq’s 36-month Stand-By Arrangement (SBA) approved by the IMF Executive Board on July 7, 2016 (See Press Release No. 16/321) .
Mr. Christian Josz, Mission Chief for Iraq, issued the following statement:
“The Iraqi authorities have made good progress towards completing the first review of the SBA.
“Once agreed upon additional information has been provided and agreed prior actions have been implemented, the IMF Board will consider the first review of the SBA, likely in November or December.
“During the discussions, the team met with Acting Governor of the Central Bank of Iraq (CBI), Dr. Ali Mohsen Ismail Al-Allaq, Deputy Finance Minister, Dr. Fadhil Nabee Othman, the Financial Adviser to the Prime Minister Dr. Mudher Saleh, and officials from the ministry of finance, the CBI, and a representative from the Kurdistan Regional Government. The team would like to thank the Iraqi authorities for their cooperation and the open and productive discussions.”