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Found 12 results

  1. The rise and fall of the middle class Appearance of Mohammed Saleh part One Although the history of the middle class in Iraq belongs to the birth of the Iraqi state in 1921, it owes its rise to the spread of regular schools and higher institutes, the development of the press, the growth of social, cultural and economic associations and the enrollment of graduates in public positions, as well as the replacement of the class (Afandi) And the owners of land (and semi-feudalism), which came due to external factors and internal factors, the writer Salah Hassan al-Musawi in his study entitled (the role of the middle class in Iraq) published in (Voice of the Iraqi Left 2009)The change of logic of international politics after the First World War, the success of the Bolshevik Revolution in Russia and its implications for the East, and the fourteen principles of President Nelson declared in his address to Congress on 18 January 1918, which focused on the reconstruction of international peace and security, Stressed the importance of giving non-Turkish peoples the right to self-determination, freedom of navigation and passage of goods, and the like. All these factors, he says, fueled the emergence of the middle class, which united with the rise of education and the emergence of the national bourgeoisie (the national market) commercial and industrial, whose main demand was the participation of power and not limited to members of the feudal class represented by tribal sheikhs, Who was educated in Astana or the West. The transformation of the market system, as the late thinker Hanna Batato in his analysis of the social classes in Iraq, was due to the concentration of land in the hands of a small number of semi-feudal financiers to carry out another function of maintaining order. This led to the collapse of the system of self-sufficiency of the peasantry masses A wide range of rural Iraq to its cities and the agricultural community to a severe human deficiency in favor of cities and work in the service sector and fusion middle class gradually, but work on its inception. It is interesting to note that Batato in his study of modern Iraqi society succeeded in his methodology, which came from a combination of Fibriya and Marxism, as the sociologist Ibrahim Al-Haidari says in his article entitled "Hanna Batato and Analysis of the Social Classes in Iraq." Al-Haidari concludes: In addition to the hierarchy of wealth. . . There was a religious and hierarchical hierarchy, both tribal and sectarian, along with the hierarchy of power and social status. Landowners formed the beginning of the modern state, but in the 1940s and 1950s they transformed into a class of their own. They called themselves politically for the emergence of the middle class And growing with the increase of urban population and the rise of residents in Baghdad to four times between 1922 and 1957, especially after the decomposition of the feudal clan and the flow of oil rent, which contributed to the disintegration of the rural hierarchy, and the transition to the market economy, The spread of education, health, roads and transportation has helped to give rise to a new social force: the intelligentsia or intellectuals who developed ideological factors such as the national spirit or the connection to the international or religious feeling, as well as the ability to express their views. The rise of the middle class It is clear that the central importance of the middle class and its historical role comes from the fact that it is a transitional class in which various class or class interests are accommodated and that its historical role, as sociologist Lutfi Hatem says in his study entitled "The middle class and its role in the destruction of the Iraqi state" The historical situation in Iraq has gained importance because of the absence of the active role of the bourgeois classes and the working class, as well as the weak political effectiveness of the working class resulting from their weak economic positions due to their growth and development in the services sector. Hatem believes that the requirement for the growth and expansion of British capital requires a state that is the political and social lever capable of protecting British interests. Hatem did not overlook the mechanisms of growth of the middle class, which he summed up with the state employees of educated elites and the access of its technical, legal, military, administrative, security and other services. Also the growth of commodity production and the role of workers and craftsmen in integrating the market system and belonging to the middle class as a broad social base supported by the rural forces of small agricultural owners Make Iraq's rural areas an added force to the middle class and expand its base. The multiplicity of social resources of the middle class and their bearing on the legacy of the various tribal values and cultures created by the cold war have led to the inability of the middle class to build itself into a leading political force that is a unified reference because of the cultural divide that sowed the seeds of its fragmentation and division between nationalist / religious currents and secular / socialist currents. Nevertheless, the middle class was able to meet the same noble goal of fighting the country's dependence on colonial alliances and joining under the leadership of the Free Officers, governed by the military hierarchy and revolutionary revolutionary spirit of the revolution in July 1958 and the overthrow of the monarchy and the building of the republican political system. Military Organization and Transformations of Political Thought, Urban Dialogue, August 2013). Number of Views 33 Date Added 16/12/2018
  2. US monetary policy hawks and doves struggle Tuesday 22 January 2019 12 Appearance of Mohammed Saleh There is no choice for the US Reserve Bank But to face the fears of the economic future of America, namely the fear of a node exceeded the annual inflation rate target limits of 2 percent, while unemployment fell to the lowest level in twenty years, did not exceed three and seven by ten percent. US monetary policy aims to raise interest rates according to the principle of gradualism, now the basis of the formation of the Federal Reserve doctrine or the so-called "New Powell Doctrine" in relation to the current Federal Reserve Chairman, Powell's doctrine is to absorb the pressures of surplus demand to stabilize prices and contain the risks of inflation, whose expectations bear the seeds of recession at the end The end. He raised US interest rates and, according to Powell's progressive doctrine, announced by Federal Reserve Chairman Jerm I. Powell himself in his famous speech on August 23, 2018, at the annual conference of central bankers at the Jackson Hole Forum in the US state of Wyoming. Deliberate gradual increase of US interest rates. So we were not surprised by the assertions of Jeremy Powell on the fourth of January 2019 that he is determined to follow his policy of monetary tightening even if President Trump asked him to resign from his post ... !!, that after accusing US President Jeremy Powell personally that he harmed the US economy By raising interest rates three times in 2018, causing a slowdown in economic growth in the United States, Trump says in a bid to curb inflation. The central bank's fear in the United States is the rapid entry of the US economy into the problems of inflation spiral and the pursuit of nominal wages of high prices to end the stagflation Stagflation on the pattern of happened in the seventies of the century the past. President Trump has become the driving force of another camp in the direction of monetary policy, dubbed the Dovish Camp, in which he aspires to have a accommodative, accommodative and accommodative monetary policy of economic growth, which is based on sustained growth rates through the adoption of truly low interest rates Exercise of facilitation policy Quantitative quantification. President Trump's tax-cutting program in 2018 has shielded America from the global economic recession, which will play a vital role in activating effective demand, sustaining production and economic growth, at a time when the US-led trade war against China, the European Union and other nations has weakened Confidence in the US economy confirmed by the Standard & Poor's S & P 500 has fallen to more than 10 percent over the past two months, while the outlook for US growth has weakened and receded. Progressive. The yield rates between short- and long-term (10-year) bonds also took a downward turn before the recession began and the difference between returnees could reach zero, investors say. Finally, he notes that the US president is still betting on low oil prices to ease international economic tension and the prospects of the global economic recession caused by the Trump trade wars by recycling oil surpluses or price differentials for the benefit of the parties to the global trade conflict and at the expense of the revenues of the group of oil exporting countries. At the same time, Trump stresses that the Federal Reserve is aware of the importance of the role of the decline in oil prices and the impact on the composition of the general level of prices and then slowed inflation due to stagnant markets Oil. Thus, President Trump 's signals and policies in economic wars, namely, the war of trade and the management of the oil price war, on the other hand, are the balance of parity in the world economy among the major powers in absorbing the commercial war lessons that bear the weight of the oil - exporting countries to pay compensation The cheap oil trade war. Thus, President Trump has given the right to defend himself as a goblin doves in the fight against interest rates against the policy of Germ Powell and hawkish hawk in the Federal Reserve, which maintains interest rates. Here, Germaine Powell tries to be a vanguard for President Trump and not as a follower of Kowtow. In addition, the existence of central banks is not necessarily (as the London Economist says recently) to strengthen or support the conditions of the stock and bond markets, those markets that are subject to fluctuations and animations for reasons not to the central bank hand In which. In conclusion, we find that the correct balance in front of Mr. Jerome Powell, President of the US Reserve Bank is to adopt a principle or doctrine in the monetary policy of the United States is akin to moderation or moderation and is usually called centrist, ie the principle of keeping sticks from the center of interest rates without causing a galvanic threat of continuing Raising interest rates in 2019 based on many misleading predictions Times.
  3. Theory of Meditation in Economic Decision Making Appearance of Mohammed Saleh Appearance of Mohammed Saleh Economic life is rising today, without exception, to test an economic trend that has begun to transcend the barriers of the neo-classical school since 1979 and to turn into the so-called behavioral economics, which adopts the theory of meditation and perception in economic decision-making. This theory is considered as a crossroads in the integration of psychological behavioral factors in economic models and models Related to the economic decision, the traditional framework for the decision-making process adopted by mainstream or prevailing trends such as the neoclassical economy, for example, is to adopt options between the various alternatives available depending on the desired outcomes and The righteousness of the goals looking forward to the same decision maker which is summarized in the sports economy are aware of the benefit of a function mostly. The economic decision theory is based on a description of the conditions under which the option can be achieved. "When there is an economic risk" ie loss, the alternative available for each option will provide a probability distribution of the possibility of achieving the results by which the decision maker chooses Best probability distributions. Apart from this and that in addressing the issue of decision-making in the main currents of economics, the basic principles of the theory of meditation and the construction of perceptions have been attributed to five principles since its birth in 1979. The trend in behavioral economics as a new school of economics led pioneers such as Daniel Kanman and Richard Thieler, who won two Nobel Prizes in economics in 2002 and 2017, respectively. This leads us to gather ideas to summarize the five basic principles of the theory of meditation and perception of economic decision makers and in accordance with the vision that came Danital Kanman and others as follows: The first principle goes to the idea that the actual decision in economic action responds (to changes in wealth) rather than wealth The change in the total value of the net assets of individuals and their assets. This principle contrasts with the traditional trends in economics which see decision-making as a response to "profit and loss" issues. The second principle of meditation theory is "difference in attitude to risk," ie, the degree of difference in risk tolerance, especially in the face of loss. Differences exist even within the same point in time and depend on the decision-making power of the decision-maker whether the loss really exists. This requires the ability to diagnose loss avoidance contexts where the importance of avoiding loss is important for contextual diagnosis. The third principle is based on the phenomenon of the so-called "diminishing sense" of profits and losses, as diminishing sensitivity requires an accurate range based on estimates that come according to the different contexts of decision-makers. It is observed in Principle 4 that economic decision-makers and their makers do not build in the theory of meditation their options on probability theory as the neo-classical school of economics goes, but rely on what they see as a chance of success, that is, the element of optimism. A situation that is seen as a "state of shift in probability." Here the theory of meditation differs from the theory of probability among decision-makers, especially in weak or verifiable probabilities, which are often too overestimated or sometimes underestimated or even neglected. The more objective it needs to be "transformation or change", which necessitates the limitation and marking. Finally, it is noted that the theory of meditation addressed by behavioral economics is still evolving. Therefore, the predominant basis in decision-making is based on a principle of contemplation called "visualization." The perceptions are subject to two types of choices: The latter is called the narrow choice of short-sighted decision-making, but perceptions remain important in decision-making and the need for it continues as a discretionary power as long as the theory of meditation appears to be of paramount importance in decision-making. Finally, the major economic schools of economics, such as the New School and the modern Ecclesiastical School, have shown a strong reservation in the use of the theory of meditating in economic decision-making for the first two reasons. The first is that the expectations are modifiable because of the probability shift and the second is the point of reference or points of reference Naturism of meditation is still incomplete and suffers from a lack of characterization in decision-making in the real world, and thus the development of economic thought in the shadow of the Fourth Technological Revolution or the current digital age was influenced by the theory of biological or biological The economic behavioral pattern of the twenty-first century and away from the thought patterns of the physical pattern and its constancy led by the second and third technological revolutions of the twentieth century. Financial Adviser to the Prime Minister of Iraq Quoting the network of Iraqi economists Number of Views 35 Date Added 08/01/2018
  4. Abadi adviser criticizes calls for reducing the dinar against the dollar Economy News Baghdad : He criticized the chancellor 's financial prime minister, the appearance of Mohammed Saleh, calls to reduce the value of the dinar Iraqi against the dollar the US, stressing that a move like this will lead to three crises . He said Saleh in a statement news received " Economy News , " a copy of it, that " there are actors and personalities working unfortunately to promote the idea of deterioration of the rate of exchange of the dinar Iraqi and causing deterioration in the standard of living and hit the stability of the order to impose a tax cash urgently affecting all segments of the people, which is inflation, and the creation of the deterioration of a deliberate level of living of the order to conquer the state some of its deficit from without to think about the management of revenues from outside the revenues of oil " , referring to the " reduction of the value of the currency Iraqi from by reducing the rate of exchange of the dinar against the dollar , for example, will add the results of the destructive impact negative in deepening the effects of the crisis financial, and is required a new strength of Inflation at the level of public prices and generates not inevitably recession inflationary, is exacerbating the situation of economic public and common discontent meant at the time of fighting the war on terrorism , and we desperately need to elements of stability and economic . " He added Saleh that " the country will come here with three crises, the crisis financial not resolved in ways that policy cash fast such as reducing the rate exchange rate of the dinar Iraqi also wants to drive the dollar and the pioneers of dollarization and Moktnzih of the wealthy who are speculating Bakot people and the misery of classes poor and limited income " , noting that " the crisis the second is inflation in prices and the deterioration of stability and economic resulting from the deterioration of the stability of the rate of exchange over the currency foreign and reduced power purchasing pensions and incomes of citizens because of expectations of inflation and broadcast state of uncertainty and lack of confidence in dinars Iraqi . " He explained that " the crisis the third will be security because of terrorism and the war on Daesh, Valkhasr is the people and the winner of the reduction of the dinar are rich dollar and terrorism, do not forget that inflation in areas Daesh and high rates of inflation rates there to 3 orders of decimals and the deterioration of the standard of living has been precipitated from the victory over the stability of standard of living in the rest of Iraq, a war economic smart that exercised leadership and economic in achieving victory soon " , pointing to that " the government reduced the expenses non - core and frivolous and petty, but did not exercise the policy of austerity absolute Ktkulail salaries or pensions or care and social expenses War and the process of investment necessary . " He said Saleh that " the process of borrowing the internal and external to finance the deficit budget is the process not ( contractionary ) also claim some, but is the process of motivational and expansive fighting deflation, Valmoisnat deflationary that lead to recession and economic are usually those that are balanced in which the budget level of expenditure is less consistent and revenue possible, They budgets contractionary really, but budgets that are built on the deficit is being funding that the deficit for by borrowing are the budgets of the expansive nature, particularly the policy of financial current in Iraq " , stressing that " borrowing the internal came in accordance with the vision of monetizing the debt Balaam often, any financing debt of For all by expanding cash basis relatively, and not the opposite, either borrowing outside same applies such as state resources , foreign and other proceeds of oil, so from where the impact of expansion to calculate the flows of foreign entering the spending year and the expansion of mass cash according to the mechanisms known among specialists in the policy of cash . " Abizaid said that " the promotion of topics dialectical economic incomplete civil in time of war and victory on terrorism is an attempt miserable of a handful of haters who want to weaken the state and rumor desperate " , adding that " there is a process anonymize programmed street Iraqi broadcast the spirit of despair, should beware of schedules business that promotes its forces driven by suspicious negative in the circumstances of positive is the victory of financial and out of the neck of the bottle, as well as the victory of the military and the liberalization of the land and man from the clutches of terrorism . " Views 19 Date Added 20/05/2017 - 11:13 Last update 05/20/2017 - 13:20 No. Content 7574
  5. Economists: {morning} is characterized by logical methods and accepted the Offering 5/17/2017 0:00 New finery and accompanied modernity Baghdad / economic morning In her 15 rolled "morning" in the eyes of economists as reflecting the importance of this platform conversations and the role of the press in dealing with the events captured as an acceptable professional, and the role of Aguetsadatha in pursuing ideas aimed at achieving real economic development in all sectors d. The appearance of Mohammed Saleh Financial Advisor to the Prime Minister Dr. appearance of Mohammed Saleh said: the beginning of Mubarak 's birthday "morning" 15 and we wish the best for her family 's outstanding and the last success, and follower of the newspaper "morning" can indicates the high graph of the evolution of eating economic materials techniques and how to put remedies fashioned way obviously sober. He said the economic "morning" are of interest to economists slice prominent role in addressing the foundations of real economic development posed by the experts and the most important ways of enhancing the economy. Saleh said: The offer visions of the public and private sectors and orientations aimed to change the shape of the economy has become unique "morning". Antoine onbehalf of the Vice President of the Baghdad Economic Forum on behalf of Jamil Antoine: congratulated and called for more tender to maintain the success of this publication is important in Iraq and the platform from which poses the most important treatments for diseases economy. He said the new orientation of the national economy needs such as this publication effort , which has never rest in addressing all the determinants of advancement in all economic sectors, and its focus on the development of Maatrah articulated by the very real experts Saeb and we wish to communicate this spirit. Haider Kazim financial expert Haider Kadhim al - Baghdadi said that media platforms have visions gathered researchers and specialists through some information on what others published this great role is the core of the work of the newspaper " Al- Sabah" , which extend its congratulations and appreciation and more tender. And "morning" new Bhltha has become more attractive to readers, especially as the newspaper of this size and this Hilla is keeping up with modernity deserve appreciation and respect. Ali Tariq The Executive Director of the Association of private banks in Iraq , Ali Tariq said that congratulations stems from the heart when you find a great effort made in order to serve the national economy, Vmbark "morning" and her family anniversary 15 Mubarak sift the most important events and put in messages aimed at building the economy the National. He added that the follower of the reality of the media indicates a distinction in what posed by the "morning" and style professional acceptable to all this stems from the know - how has her family in full economic and in particular what it takes to work the national economy and the selection right for experts and specialists who diagnosed the real starting point for the stage of economic development sought by Iraq points. Dr.. Sadiq Rashid Al Shammari Academic d. Sadiq Rashid Al Shammari said: I repeat what we always say that one of the reasons for the success of the newspaper " Al- Sabah" is a broad Bancharha and methods of logical subtraction Permanent Our question about the news Do you publish in the newspaper "morning" to ensure credibility, the most valuable and I wish success to all employees in this media edifice which work works The new deployment , which serves the country and convey the events in a professional and credible. Dr.. Akram Abdel Aziz Economic Forum member of the Baghdad d. Akram Abdel Aziz stressed that the role of the media is essential and active in the development process and the "morning" play a big role in this joint is important, which requires us to offer warm congratulations to her family celebrating by the anniversary of 15, saying it represents the pulse of the Iraqi street and mirror about what is happening on the ground . Abdul Zahra al - Hindawi, Abdul Zahra al - Hindawi, the official spokesman of the Ministry of Planning , said: In memory of preeminence "morning" .. We extend our sincere congratulations sincere economic section of the newspaper "morning" and all fellow employees .. They really deserve congratulations because they were able to and through the hard work that make "economic morning" pages like a Matkon workshop daily work, are thus keen to follow up the economic event in all its details at the national and global levels through the news report and analysis, as well as it has attracted my pages "economic morning" prestigious names in the world economy, we read daily S columns and articles are important for those economic figures, contributed to the development of solutions and treatments for many of the developmental dilemmas, And We congratulate the Economic Section anniversary of the founding of the newspaper " Al- Sabah" , we bless the master of the editor and all employees in the Gazette of their festival auspicious, wishing them more sparkle and creativity, and the newspaper " Al- Sabah "brighter continues, and every year Sabahat" morning "and renewed mace brighter. Dr.. Suhaila Ahadjima economic development professor at the University of Mustansiriya d. Suhaila Ahadjima congratulated "morning" by saying: It is my newspaper favorite , where I never diurnal detailed reading, and in particular the economic pages as they relate to my work, and wished Ahadjima to maintain the paper's high prestige that they reached between this huge number of newspapers and websites, follow - up propaganda have time continuity and progress in all fields of political, economic, technical, and supply the followers with what is new. The researchers also cares about what is published on page economy newspaper "morning" to what is published by the themes and ideas and proposals put a set of solutions to a number of problems that Iennbha Iraq 's economy. Lubna Al Shammari and crossed the economic researcher Lubna Shammari wishes for "morning" to shine and more creativity and dedication in upholding the interests of Iraq 's economy through a unique cadre page Bmoadiahm that offer serious solutions to the majority of the problems plaguing the economic process time. Shammari pointed out that the economic follow - page Sigtna ideas and information from covers seminars, conferences and all economic activities organized by government agencies and other organizations belonging to the civil society. Dr.. Imad al - Saadi , in turn praised d. Imad Saadi , the importance of the topics covered by pages 11 and 12 of the morning newspaper, saying it was the most addressed newspaper economic affairs which are of interest to stakeholders and specialists and economic experts as contributing Bignaihm materials and themes of renewable and ideas which address diagnose problems and develop solutions and proposals actors to address them. He stressed Saadi there is a clear evolution in the design of fixed and angles on the page as "economic concepts and indicators of the stock market and prices" . He expressed appreciation for the efforts being made to provide two pages important to the reader and follow - economic affairs being the Toakpan local, Arab and international affairs and the latest developments and the most important economic events on a daily basis. Firas Amer economic researcher Firas Amer congratulated the staff of the "morning" hoping to achieve more success and glamor in her media efforts. He added Amer proud of the existence of such as "Al - Sabah", especially the economic pages of them being the aspiration of the reader interested in the most important economic events, adding that these pages Maatmtaz by the diversity of information and follow - up news and reports. He pointed out that the visions of economists that dealt with "morning" in the subjects are of interest to us researchers , economists being discussed in all productive sectors of the problems and develop appropriate solutions, stressing that it represents the voice of economists audio among officials and decision - makers being the most prevalent through to all readers of various social strata . D.magd Baidhani The academic economic D.magd Baidhani said: I feel pride and pride and I follow and read the "morning" interior Besvhatha colorful themes rich renewable information, adding that "morning" was able to compete with Arab counterparts including publishing the articles along with their ability to cover economic aspects. He expressed his wishes to continue in the "morning" creative economic in her career and more sparkle and success.
  6. Abadi adviser explains the pros put the category of 50 000 dinars Sunday November 15 - 2015 13:54 The new model expected cash Category Economic Adviser to the Prime Minister said the appearance of Mohammed Saleh, that Iraq needs a central bank issuing cash paper of 50 thousand dinars category, to shorten the transaction, given that the country is dealing cash payments and no credit cards in circulation in the West Kalveza CARD or MasterCard and other cards and instruments. And Saleh, in an exclusive interview with Radio tow, that the issuance of the largest category of cash, is a financial project put forward since 2006 at the Economic Commission (in the cabinet), which is currently equivalent to about $ 46 (depending on the exchange rate), explaining that the major Iraqi currency accounted for 90% of banknotes, so the issuance of 50 thousand class will strengthen those currencies and contributes to the shortcut transactions. And a project to delete the zeros and repair system of cash payments, Economic Adviser to the Prime Minister said, he has seen bickering prevented obtaining the support and recognition of the Council of Ministers in 2012. He believed that the new currency version of the 50 dinars category, will reduce the cash currency carry on the citizen, as it reduces the count sorting and storage operations in the banks and therefore the consequent cost private said it was "very high", adding that it would push for raising the efficiency of the system of cash payments . Saleh expressed surprise at the criticism directed some resolution version of this new category, and called on them to not to dwell in the affairs is not their specialty, and expected formally awarded within the circulation and salaries early next year.
  7. Efficiency and economic equality Author: d. The appearance of Mohammed Saleh 25/02/2015 0:00 In the midst of economic and debate about issues of equality and inequality in income distribution dialogue, there is clear there is a causal relationship between the absolute equality in the redistribution of income and Altdhoralamtaleg in economic efficiency! As someone Economists decades ago, he greater the degree of equality in the distribution of income, the cost Alfrsah to maximize output or income itself will take to shrink and then decline and deterioration!Often supplied examples of economic models in this regard, which all aim to understand the correlation between maximizing the efficiency and the degree of optimization of economic equality. Suppose that the national income of the community is something similar to a large piece of cheese, circular yellow, and being prepared on an ongoing basis every year, and the piece that obtained by any of the members of the society represents the contribution of each one of them in the industry or those preparing cheese. Let us assume that the said community decided for reasons of justice and fairness, to get some members of the community on large pieces of cheese and some others on the smaller of the same cheese pieces. But on the community decided to re-distribute the cheese and in a way that everyone gets an equal cut of the same cheese, regardless of the amount of the contribution of each one of them in the preparation of the large circular disc of yellow cheese, they would reach over time and that the overall size of the cheese may take to subside and contraction from its previous status. And members of the community will find out for themselves, that today's cheese has become smaller than cheese yesterday !. Here, the fundamental question: Why do you contribute in the making of cheese if you get sufficient and appropriate piece of cheese from my work without making any significant effort in production? The answer very clear and explicit, which is that low cheese ring yellow tablet and shrinking its size is, in essence, that loss in the degree of contribution of individuals in sufficiently productive (no loss in output or annual income as a result of dependency and low contribution to the cheese industry) and the reason for this stems inevitably from the effects harmful to re Distribution of the dysfunctional to stimulate production and suppresses the production and dysfunctional to savings and investment, and not to accept the administrative and regulatory risks leading! Also, shrinking and small cheese pie disk itself also reflects those resources wasted society in the interests of the bureaucratic forces that took over the management of the administrative system for the redistribution of cheese !! But the question remains resounding: What is the size that can be accepted by the society in which the big yellow cheese disk shrink when re-distribution in a manner closer to equality? Will tolerate loss by the community is 10 percent or 20 percent or 75 percent? That the central question facing the main economic decision-makers around the world in search of the ideal size for the distribution of the cheese and the fairness and equality at the lowest possible loss in production efficiency. !!
  8. Markets for the sale of food Economist: the country in front of a dilemma in planning expenses in 2014 and we do not balance the budget submission Author: HA, HH, ZJ Editor: HA, HH 28/10/2014 3 p.m. number of readings: 256 Long-Presse / Baghdad Deputy Governor of the former Central Bank of the appearance of Mohammed Saleh, said on Tuesday that the country before the trouble in the preparation of the current year budget in 2014, because of the additional expenses "weak cash flows", and called for attention is now the year 2015 budget and to provide a "budget, not the budget," while a student adviser Speaker of Parliament for Energy Ali Fayad dialogues "serious" with the Kurdistan region on the budget. He said the appearance of Mohammed Saleh in an interview with the (long-Presse), said that "there are two limitations facing budget expenditures, the first entry and the presence of additional expenses incurred due to the security situation, including the popular crowd expenses, in addition to a lot of laws and decisions that carry financial burdens." Saleh added that "the cash flows of the budget is the other was weak, and there was not enough her hedges, and were encountered by lower oil prices, Fbermal oil lost during the last term 25% of the gains, and thus the loss of 25% of the oil revenues in the budget," adding that " before this scarcity there are financial obligations faced exchange for the Kurdistan region or other provinces, therefore, there is a dilemma in preparing the 2014 budget, and on this basis, the financial management of certain expenses in connection with the feminine to fit with the next financial resources. " He emphasized in favor of the need for "attention to the overall budget in 2015, as something based on, and we now tilt toward providing budget, not the budget, and the last means closing statements, which were from the collection of revenues and what has been the expenses progress in front of the House of Representatives for the purposes of the budget governance so that Parliament knows where to go, and any spent direction and I think this is going to happen. " For his part, the President of Parliament for energy adviser said on Dhari Fayad said in an interview to the (long-Presse), "The task of the budget through all the procedures required for the construction of the state, and achieve the goals of the Iraqi people through the achievements and projects in infrastructure salute, and the development of public service and urban situation." Fayad said that "it is recognized that the budget is based on the nature of the relationship associated with the region, it is necessary to find a serious dialogue based on understanding, which can expedite the provision on the basis of the budget and approved by the Council of Ministers, then submitted to the House of Representatives." A government source has revealed, on Monday (27 October 2014), about the many causes of advances obtained by the Ministry of Electricity of the financial, oil and transport ministries, to the delayed completion of the final accounts for the four ministries, and the complexity of the preparation of the budget year 2014 the current, which will not include any degrees of functional or new investment projects, noting that it would be limited to justify government expenses "heavily" to military spending. The Finance Committee of the House of Representatives has indicated in (22 October 2014), to reduce the state budget by 59 trillion dinars, and called on the government to austerity and reduce expenditure is necessary, while an economist suggested reducing the upper layers of the salaries of the state, and stimulate the private sector to be able to find a new jobs to absorb the unemployed rather than the full dependence on the state in this area. The Prime Minister, Haider al-Abadi, revealed, (20 October 2014), during the conference, to discuss the Council of Ministers the issue of the budget three times, and that the Council will prepare a budget in which a military spending as a fait accompli, noting that the budget of 2015, will be based on the current budget year 2014, due to the presence of the same problems, of Kirkuk's oil and stop completely, as well as lower world prices, and expectations about the decline more to this, the Council of Ministers decided to austerity.
  9. Economist: on the international community to support Iraq's economy Published on Sunday, 19 October 1 / Okrudolf 2014 14:26 Written by: Sheikh Salem Hits: 68BAGHDAD / Center Brief for the Iraqi Media Network (IMN) - The economist said the appearance of Mohammed Saleh, said that the duty of the international community to protect the economy and development of Iraq, especially that Iraq is turning into a global front to fight terrorism. Saleh pointed out for (IMN), that "Iraq is boxed Bakadan First, the war on terror, and the other war in oil prices," noting that "Iraq has lost 25% of its petroleum revenues in the past three months because of his war on terrorism." "It has to be for the international community must shoulder its responsibility towards Iraq, and to save the ailing economy on an ongoing basis." He continued economic expert that "should the diplomatic political and economic exploitation of the Iraqi International Conference and out with good results support the country's economy." It is scheduled to hold a conference to collect mobilize international support for the Iraqi economy under the auspices of UNDP United Nations along the lines of the Madrid Conference in 2003. From: Faten Hussein
  10. How we need to deduce the experience of economic growth in the world? 5/11/2014 0:00 Baghdad Yasser incumbent three points define a fundamental indicator of economic growth for any country seeking to raise it in the light of the changes taking place in the world economic and financial crises that affected ridden economies in the world economic thinker d her person. Appearance of Mohammed Saleh in his column recently published in a recent morning, he talks about "the mystery of growth" in the Chinese experience. summed determinants follows openness to the world, Alancfaaly self-confidence in the private sector and concluded by warning most economists unleash against globalization?! What is the concept of globalization? mean pigmentation world earth dye and one all-inclusive Oqguamha and all who live in it and unify its economic, social and intellectual is considered to different religions, cultures and nationalities. for the purpose of reading and analysis of these determinants must know the concept of globalization that the individual being fired, in many cases without the knowledge of their interpretation Is it an economic phenomenon or The reality of the imposed conditions and global economic crises. reports the International Monetary Fund that Iraq tops most countries in achieving Alnamwalaguetsada document so the size of its oil exports and its expansion in the production of oil and gas investment, but the economists to Ayatbroon These results indicators real growth considering the decline the contribution of other economic sectors, especially industry and agriculture in the GDP. , and if we looked for the extent of the application of Iraq to these criteria, we find that it is open completely to the world, but in return Prone to himself and a lack of confidence in the private sector and here show abnormalities economy and the inability to achieve real economic growth. This contradiction can be seen in trade openness extensive with the world and a retreat house on the other, and the reason for this retreat is absolutely environment repellant to invest because of some of the practices in dealing with companies wishing to invest, including failure to implement the single window and make corporate spin in the whirlpool revisions prohibitive and these practices reasons known to Kasi and wide. Lama placed a loss of confidence in the private sector pays unabashed due to wrestle on the interests and ignoring the role of the private sector in the growth of well-known but this is the reality of the case. what way? these practices intersect with the mechanisms of globalization, which has been studied all the economies of the socialist camp, how you achieve growth with this contradictions?You have to study and understand the depth of the Chinese experience in this regard, in Iraq, there is counteracted style privatization which is an optimal solution, according to economists have formed a supreme body for this purpose, but diluted, and that the style of corporate governance is the solution CMOS has formed a ministerial committee and disappeared without even the administrative order overturned, Almertsma This is the picture of the reality of the Iraqi economy, and the solution lies in the inclusion of economic programs for the next fundamentals to overcome the effects of globalization and bring them in line to achieve the economic interests of the country as it has done all the countries that have passed the same conditions similar to conditions in Iraq.
  11. 50 billion dinars, the total amount for the current year Asdaria 7/5/2014 0:00 Finance announces its plan to issue treasury transfers Baghdad - Mostafa Hashemi said Public Debt Department in the Ministry of Finance plans to issue treasury transfers to Ajal annual and half-yearly through organized for ten auctions, each worth 5 billion dinars, to be the total amount Asdaria 50 billion dinars in 2014. government funding Based on the public debt law, which authorized the Ministry of Finance issued remittances Treasury guaranteed by the government, the Central Bank of Iraq, as an agent financially to the Ministry of Finance, the Department of auctions of treasury transfers on behalf of the ministry, which will, according to the determinants of annual budget law by issuing transfers treasury for the purposes of government funding. deficit temporary , according to economic expert, Dr. appearance of Mohammed Saleh, who said in a statement (morning): The treasury transfers short term and expires at the end of the year which comes to finance the deficit of my time. between Saleh, said that the treasury transfers back to the Ministry of Finance sold at an auction held by and supervised by the Central Bank for this purpose, He explained that the treasury transfers are handled internally (inside Iraq), which is a bond issued by the government, of between six months and full year. explained that the treasury transfers a leaf does not bear interest but are sold at a discount given on the nominal value and the government gives them the benefit of cash is relatively low in relation to the prevailing interest rate on bank loans because of the severity of the liquidity stemming from these cases could be deducted before the date of maturity at commercial banks. participants in the auction,and pointed out that the participants in this auction as a fund retirement government departments or the Ministry of Labor. He also called for government institutions, non-banking financial such as insurance companies and others to participate in the auction of treasury transfers to contribute to the achievement of approaching more than selling Asdaria fully to beneficiaries, and is likely to be a reason not to sell Asdaria entirely to the limited lending to banks, the government requires the entry of those financial institutions in these auctions to mainstream benefits to government bodies beneficiary of retirement as a circle or circle of social security. He said Iraq, according to the Paris Club agreement, he sold government bonds once was desirable for the acquisition and purchase of the world to the fact that the proportion of their usefulness was at the time, 8 percent, and their very suitable, stressing that the turnout it was because of the reputation of Iraq in terms of the obligation to pay and fulfill external debt as well as prices interest. release plan includes a plan to issue treasury transfers for the current year and issued by the Public Debt Department in the Ministry of Finance set up a 10 auctions, including 5 Auctions annual and 5 Other semi-annually and a total of 50 billion dinars for 182 days and the other for 364 days. was the first auction semi-annual 182 days may be held on April 21 last to be the maturity date in October 21 next. It is scheduled to hold another auction for 364 days in the twenty-fifth of August to be the due date in the same month in 2015. worth mentioning that the Ministry of Finance approved on April 21, last made ​​a public auction, the auction semi-annual sale transfers treasury for 182 days and $ 500 Danaroukd billion sale of which 343 billion and 0.850 million dinars and the highest rate cut of 7 percent Auctions competitive and competitive average yield 5.10 percent, and the number of participants was given 3 points, won the bid one bank in addition to the pension and welfare service minors.
  12. Bank indicates a threat to development and security implications of the decline like to "Chapter VII" WEDNESDAY, JULY 31, 2013 13:22 Twilight News / Deputy Governor of the Central Bank of Iraq the previous appearance of Mohammed Saleh, Wednesday, that the development in Iraq are at greater risk because of the decline in the security situation, noting that the security implications of the economic file does not differ from those imposed on Iraq because of the "Chapter VII". Mohammed said in an interview with "Twilight News", that the danger of an imminent security assets in Iraq, and make economic decisions of the provisional short-term, not long-term investment decisions. He added that the economic equation in Iraq overturned due to the declining security situation of the equation of building and business investment to hedge equation and the freezing of funds and rely on profit little Links periods. He continued, "The Chapter VII" cost Iraq a lot, Fbtosifh country a war zone, drained of the Iraqi economy proportion of 45-50% of the projects built because of the threat in accordance with Chapter VII, and after the withdrawal of Iraq from this chapter, nothing has changed, The cost of insurance on projects also rose due to declining security. And stresses the majority of local authorities in the provinces, especially where security escalation that the majority of investors played for obtaining the licenses to set up investment projects due to the drop in the security situation. Economists refer to that became طاردا violence to invest because the environment lead to the escape of violent investors, and that any economic process does not non-national investment and foreign. For H / K e / j p
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