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Theseus

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Posts posted by Theseus


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    PrEP
    100%
     
    PEP
    100%
     
    Early
    100%
     
    Late
    62%
     
    All
    75%
     
      66 studies (39 peer reviewed)
      COVID deaths: 
    687,594
    Global HCQ studies. PrEP, PEP, and early treatment studies show high effectiveness, while late treatment shows mixed results.
             
    7/29
    Positive
    Late D'Arminio Monforte et al., International Journal of Infectious Diseases, doi:10.1016/j.ijid.2020.07.056 (Letter) Effectiveness of Hydroxychloroquine in COVID-19 disease: A done and dusted situation?
    HCQ+AZ adjusted death HR 0.44, p=0.009. Propensity scores include baseline COVID-19 disease severity, age, gender, number of comorbidities, cardio-vascular disease, duration of symptoms, date of admission, baseline ..
    7/26
    Inconc.
    PEP Mitjà et al., medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2020.07.20.20157651 (Preprint) A Cluster-Randomized Trial of Hydroxychloroquine as Prevention of Covid-19 Transmission and Disease
    Death rate reduced from 0.6% to 0.4%, RR 0.68, not statistically significant due to low incidence (8 control cases, 5 treatment cases). For positive symptomatic cases, a greater effect is seen for nursing home residents, RR=0.49 [0.21 - ..
    7/24
    Positive
    PrEP Khurana et al., medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2020.07.21.20159301 (Preprint) Prevalence and clinical correlates of COVID-19 outbreak among healthcare workers in a tertiary level hospital
    Study of hospital health care workers showing HCQ prophylaxis reduces COVID-19 significantly, OR 0.30, p=0.02. 94 positive health care workers with a matched sample of 87 testing negative. Full course prophylaxis wa..
    7/23
    Negative
    Late Cavalcanti et al., NEJM, July 23, 2020, doi:10.1056/NEJMoa201901 (Peer Reviewed) Hydroxychloroquine with or without Azithromycin in Mild-to-Moderate Covid-19
    Late stage RCT of 667 hospitalized patients with up to 14 days of symptoms at enrollment and receiving up to 4 liters per minute supplemental oxygen, not finding a significant effect after 15 days. Authors note: "the trial cannot de..
    7/22
    In Vitro
    In Vitro Hoffmann et al., Nature, (2020), doi:10.1038/s41586-020-2575-3 (Peer Reviewed) (In Vitro) (not included in the study count) Chloroquine does not inhibit infection of human lung cells with SARS-CoV-2
    The title of this paper does not appear to match the results. Fig. 1b @100uM shows CQ results in a ~4.5 fold decrease (on a linear scale) in extracellular virus, p=0.05, after 24 hours (we do not see the supplementa..
    7/21
    Positive
    Late Bernaola et al., medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2020.07.17.20155960 (Preprint) Observational Study of the Efficiency of Treatments in Patients Hospitalized with Covid-19 in Madrid
    HCQ HR 0.83 [0.77-0.89] based on propensity score matched retrospective analysis of 1,645 hospitalized patients. Prednisone HR 0.85 [0.82-0.88], 14 other medications showed either no signicant benefit or a negative ..
    7/20
    Meta
    (positive)
    Early Risch, H., American Journal of Epidemiology, July 20, 2020, doi:10.1093/aje/kwaa152 (Peer Reviewed) (meta analysis - not included in the study count) Response to: “Early Outpatient Treatment of Symptomatic, High-Risk Covid-19 Patients” and “Re: Early Outpatient Treatment of Symptomatic, High-Risk Covid-19 Patients that Should be Ramped-Up Immediately as Key to the Pandemic Crisis”
    Updated meta analysis including 7 new studies of high-risk outpatients, for a total of 12 studies, all showing significant benefit.
    7/18
    Meta
    (positive)
    PEP Watanabe, M., arXiv.org, arXiv:2007.09477 (Preprint) (meta analysis - not included in the study count) Efficacy of Hydroxychloroquine as Prophylaxis for Covid-19
    Secondary analysis of Boulware et al.'s PEP trial and treatment delay-response data, confirming that HCQ is effective when used early, p<0.01. The effectiveness found is especially notable considering the limitatio..
    7/16
    Inconc.
    Early Skipper et al., Annals of Internal Medicine, doi:10.7326/M20-4207 (Peer Reviewed) Hydroxychloroquine in Nonhospitalized Adults With Early COVID-19: A Randomized Trial
    ~70 to 140 hour (inc. shipping) delayed outpatient treatment with HCQ reduced combined hospitalization/death by 50%, p=0.29 (5 HCQ cases, 10 control cases), and reduced hospitalization by 60%,..
    7/16
    Inconc.
    Early Mitjà et al., Clinical Infectious Diseases, ciaa1009, doi:10.1093/cid/ciaa1009 (Peer Reviewed) Hydroxychloroquine for Early Treatment of Adults with Mild Covid-19: A Randomized-Controlled Trial
    This paper has inconsistent data - some of the values reported in Table 2 and the abstract correspond to 12 control hospitalizations, while others correspond to 11 control hospitalizations. There was a 25% reduction in hospitalization an..
    7/9
    Meta
    (positive)
    Early, Late Raoult et al., Preprint (Preprint) (meta analysis - not included in the study count) Hydroxychloroquine and Azithromycin as a Treatment of COVID-19: Results of an Open-Label Non-Randomized Clinical Trial: Response to David Spencer (Elsevier)
    Updated meta analysis showing significant reductions in mortality and viral shedding. Mortality OR 0.53 [0.4-0.71] for clinical studies, 0.92 big data studies, 18,211 patients. Persistent viral shedding OR 0.47 [0.28-0.79], 4,540 patients.
    7/7
    Negative
    Late An et al., medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2020.07.04.20146548 (Preprint) Treatment Response to Hydroxychloroquine and Antibiotics for mild to moderate COVID-19: a retrospective cohort study from South Korea
    Retrospective of hospitalized patients with 31 HCQ patients and 195 standard treatment patients, not showing a significant difference in terms of viral clearance or recovery. There was no mortality in either group. ..
    7/3
    Positive
    PrEP Zhong et al., Lancent Rheumatology, 10.1016/S2665-9913(20)30227-7 (Peer Reviewed) COVID-19 in patients with rheumatic disease in Hubei province, China: a multicentre retrospective observational study
    Rheumatic disease patients on HCQ had a lower risk of COVID-19 than those on other disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs, OR 0.09 (0.01–0.94), p=0.044 after adjusting for age, sex, smoking, systemic lupus erythemat..
    7/3
    Positive
    Early Scholz et al., Preprints 2020, 2020070025, doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0025.v1 (Preprint) COVID-19 Outpatients – Early Risk-Stratified Treatment with Zinc Plus Low Dose Hydroxychloroquine and Azithromycin: A Retrospective Case Series Study
    Early treatment with HCQ+AZ+Z results in 84% lower hospitalization and 80% lower death - hospitalization OR 0.16 (p<0.001), death OR 0.2 (p=0.16). No cardiac side effects. Retrospective 518 patients (141 treated, 37..
    7/1
    Positive
    Late Arshad et al., Int. J. Infect. Dis., July 1 2020, doi:10.1016/j.ijid.2020.06.099 (Peer Reviewed) Treatment with Hydroxychloroquine, Azithromycin, and Combination in Patients Hospitalized with COVID-19
    HCQ decreases mortality from 26.4% to 13.5% (HCQ) or 20.1% (HCQ+AZ). Propensity matched HCQ HR 0.487, p=0.009. Michigan 2,541 patients retrospecti..
    7/1
    Safety
    N/A Samuel et al., Heart Rhythm, doi:10.1016/j.hrthm.2020.06.033 (Peer Reviewed) (not included in the study count) Incidence of arrhythmias and electrocardiographic abnormalities in symptomatic pediatric patients with PCR positive SARS-CoV-2 infection including drug induced changes in the corrected QT interval (QTc)
    In pediatric patients with PCR positive active COVID-19 infection, significant arrhythmias are infrequent, but occur at an incidence higher than expected in a general pediatric population. Comorbidities are not more common in patients wit..
    6/30
    Positive
    Late Mikami et al., J. Gen. Intern. Med., doi:10.1007/s11606-020-05983-z (Peer Reviewed) Risk Factors for Mortality in Patients with COVID-19 in New York City
    HCQ decreases mortality, HR 0.53 (CI 0.41–0.67). IPTW adjustment does not significantly change HR 0.53 (0.41-0.68). Retrospective 6,000 patients in New York City.
    6/29
    Positive
    PrEP Ferreira et al., J. Medical Virology, July 9, 2020, doi:10.1002/jmv.26286 (preprint 6/29) (Peer Reviewed) Chronic treatment with hydroxychloroquine and SARS-CoV-2 infection
    Chronic treatment with HCQ provides protection against COVID, odds ratio 0.51 (0.37-0.70). Note that patients with SLE, RA, and other autoimmune conditions have a significantly increased susceptibility to and incide..
    6/29
    Safety
    N/A Mfeukeu-Kuate et al. (Preprint) (not included in the study count) Electrocardiographic safety of daily Hydroxychloroquine 400mg plus Azithromycin 250mg as an ambulatory treatment for COVID-19 patients in Cameroon
    No life-threatening modifications of the QT interval was observed in non-severe COVID-19 patients treated ambulatory with HCQ+AZ. 51 relatively young patients 39 +/- 11.
    6/25
    Positive
    Early Lagier et al., Travel Med. Infect. Dis. 101791, Jun 25, 2020, doi:10.1016/j.tmaid.2020.101791 (Peer Reviewed) Outcomes of 3,737 COVID-19 patients treated with hydroxychloroquine/azithromycin and other regimens in Marseille, France: A retrospective analysis
    Early treatment leads to significantly better clinical outcome and faster viral load reduction. Matched sample mortality HR 0.41 p-value 0.048. Retrospective 3,737 patients.
    6/22
    In Vitro
    In Vitro Wang et al., bioRxiv, doi:10.1101/2020.06.22.164665 (Preprint) (In Vitro) (not included in the study count) Chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine as ACE2 blockers to inhibit viropexis of COVID-19 Spike pseudotype virus
    In vitro study, not included in the study count or percentages. CQ and HCQ inhibit the entry of COVID-19 spike pseudotype virus using ACE2 high expressed HEK293T cells.
    6/22
    Positive
    Early Chen et al., medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2020.06.19.20136093 (Preprint) Efficacy and safety of chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine in moderate type of COVID-19: a prospective open-label randomized controlled study
    Significantly faster clinical recovery and shorter time to RNA negative (from 7.0 days to 2.0 days (HCQ), p=0.01. 67 patients with mild/moderate cases.
    6/19
    Positive
    (news)
    PrEP SMSH Sawai Man Singh Hospital, India (News) (not included in the study count) HCQ beneficial as preventive drug: SMS doctors told ICMR
    PrEP with 4,300 very high risk healthcare workers in a hospital with up to 500+ COVID patients at a time, only 1% cases, all recovered.
    6/19
    Negative
    (news)
    Late NIH, study not available yet (News) (not included in the study count) NIH halts clinical trial of hydroxychloroquine
    NIH halts late stage trial reporting no harm and no benefit. 470 patients.
    6/19
    Positive
    Late Sbidian et al., medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2020.06.16.20132597 (Preprint) Hydroxychloroquine with or without azithromycin and in-hospital mortality or discharge in patients hospitalized for COVID-19 infection: a cohort study of 4,642 in-patients in France
    Retrospective of 4,642 hospitalized patients in France showing significantly faster discharge with HCQ and HCQ+AZ. No significant effect is seen on 28-day mortality, however many more control ..
    6/18
    Inconc.
    Late Paccoud et al., Clinical Infectious Diseases, doi:10.1093/cid/ciaa791 (Peer Reviewed) Compassionate use of hydroxychloroquine in clinical practice for patients with mild to severe Covid-19 in a French university hospital
    Retrospective of 89 hospitalized patients, survival HR 0.89 [0.23-3.47], not statistically significant. Authors note that unmeasured confounders may have persisted and the study may be underpowered.
    6/17
    Positive
    Late Xue et al., J. Med. Virology, June 17, 2020, doi:10.1002/jmv.26193 (Peer Reviewed) Hydroxychloroquine treatment in COVID-19: a descriptive observational analysis of 30 cases from a single center in Wuhan, China
    30 hospitalized patients. Early use of HCQ is more effective, 43% reduction in progression from moderate to severe. "Early" is relative here, within 7 days of hospitalization.
    6/17
    Negative
    (news)
    Late World Health Organization, study not available yet (News) (not included in the study count) “Solidarity” clinical trial for COVID-19 treatments
    WHO stopped the Solidarity late stage trial of HCQ reporting no benefit. Later news reported "little or no reduction in mortality" [1]. The study has not been released yet and few details are available. Th..
    6/16
    Positive
    (news)
    PrEP WHIP COVID-19 (News) (not included in the study count) Henry Ford Health System still moving forward with hydroxychloroquine study
    Ongoing WHIP COVID-19 HCQ PrEP study reports analyzing their data and seeing a significantly improved outcome in a group of COVID-19 patients who received HCQ. For more details on the study se..
    6/12
    Theory
    Theory Scherrmann, AAPS J 22, 86 (2020), doi:10.1208/s12248-020-00465-w (Peer Reviewed) (Theory) (not included in the study count) Intracellular ABCB1 as a Possible Mechanism to Explain the Synergistic Effect of Hydroxychloroquine-Azithromycin Combination in COVID-19 Therapy
    Theory paper, not included in the study count or percentages. Proposes a new mechanism supporting the synergistic interaction between HCQ+AZ.
    6/12
    Negative
    Late Giacomelli et al., medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2020.06.05.20123299 (Preprint) Early administration of lopinavir/ritonavir plus hydroxychloroquine does not alter the clinical course of SARS-CoV-2 infection: a retrospective cohort study
    Late stage study of hospitalized patients comparing treatment starting within 5 days versus later. Note that "early" here is only relative - all patients are hospitalized so this is "late" and "very late". Th..
    6/10
    Positive
    Early Otea et al., medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2020.06.10.20101105 (Preprint) A short therapeutic regimen based on hydroxychloroquine plus azithromycin for the treatment of COVID-19 in patients with non-severe disease. A strategy associated with a reduction in hospital admissions and complications.
    80 moderate cases, HCQ+AZ appears to reduce serious complications and death. Moderate treated cases resulted in hospitalization at the same rate as mild untreated cases suggesting efficacy.
    6/9
    Positive
    Late Pirnay et al., Hosp. Pharm. and Clinician, doi:10.1016/j.phclin.2020.06.001 (Peer Reviewed) Beneficial effect of Hydroxychloroquine-Azithromycin combination in the treatment of elderly patients with Covid-19: results of an observational study
    68 very high risk nursing home residents, median age 86, HCQ+AZ early treatment within 2.5 days onset, 2 stopped due to QTc. Only 7 died, significantly less than other nursing homes in France and the same as the med..
    6/9
    Positive
    PrEP Bhattacharya et al., medRxix, doi:10.1101/2020.06.09.20116806 (Preprint) Pre exposure Hydroxychloroquine use is associated with reduced COVID19 risk in healthcare workers
    HCQ reduced cases from 38% to 7%. 106 people. No serious adverse effects.
    6/6
    Meta
    (positive)
    Early, Late Million et al., New Microbes and New Infections, doi:10.1016/j.nmni.2020.100709 (Peer Reviewed) (meta analysis - not included in the study count) Clinical Efficacy of Chloroquine derivatives in COVID-19 Infection: Comparative metaanalysis between the Big data and the real world
    [H]CQ effective and reduces mortality by a factor 3. Meta analysis of 20 studies.
    6/5
    Negative
    Late Horby et al., medRxiv, 7/15/2020, doi:10.1101/2020.07.15.20151852 (press release 6/5) (Preprint) Effect of Hydroxychloroquine in Hospitalized Patients with COVID-19: Preliminary results from a multi-centre, randomized, controlled trial
    RECOVERY trial reports no significant benefit seen for very late stage very sick patients. Results may be due to the unusually high dosage used [1, 2]. Patients were extremely sick (average of 9 days post symptoms, 60% requiring oxygen an..
    6/3
    Positive
    (see notes)
    PEP Boulware et al., NEJM, June 3 2020, doi:10.1056/NEJMoa2016638 (Peer Reviewed) A Randomized Trial of Hydroxychloroquine as Postexposure Prophylaxis for Covid-19
    COVID-19 cases are reduced by [49%, 29%, 16%] respectively when taken within ~[70, 94, 118] hours of exposure (including shipping delay). The treatment delay-response relationship is significant at p=0.002. PEP delayed treatment RCT. Cur..
    5/31
    Positive
    Early Guérin et al., Asian J. Medicine and Health, July 15, 2020, doi:10.9734/ajmah/2020/v18i730224 (preprint 5/31) (Peer Reviewed) Azithromycin and Hydroxychloroquine Accelerate Recovery of Outpatients with Mild/Moderate COVID-19
    Mean clinical recovery time reduced from 26 days (SOC) to 9 days, p<0.0001 (HCQ+AZ) or 13 days, p<0.0001 (AZ). No cardiac toxicity. Small retrospective study of 88 patients with case control analysis with matched pa..
    5/29
    Positive
    Late Ayerbe et al., Journal of Thrombosis and Thrombolysis, doi: 10.1007/s11239-020-02162-z (Peer Reviewed) The association between treatment with heparin and survival in patients with Covid-19
    2075 hospital patients in Spain. HCQ reduces mortality from 30% to 13%. Not adjusted for age and gender. HCQ group 10% more males and 6 years younger. Study primarily interested in Heparin.
    5/28
    Positive
    Late Chamieh et al., medRxiv 2020.05.28.20114835, doi:10.1101/2020.05.28.20114835 (Preprint) Viral Dynamics Matter in COVID-19 Pneumonia: the success of early treatment with hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin in Lebanon
    HCQ+AZ potentially explains 94.7% success in treating a fairly complex cohort.
    5/28
    Positive
    PrEP Chatterjee et al., Indian J. Med. Res., June 20, 2020, doi:10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_2234_20 (Peer Reviewed) Healthcare workers & SARS-CoV-2 infection in India: A case-control investigation in the time of COVID-19
    4+ doses of HCQ associated with a significant decline in the odds of getting infected, dose-response relationship exists.
    5/28
    Positive
    Late Huang et al., National Science Review, nwaa113, doi:10.1093/nsr/nwaa113 (Peer Reviewed) Preliminary evidence from a multicenter prospective observational study of the safety and efficacy of chloroquine for the treatment of COVID-19
    197 CQ patients, 176 control. Mean time to undetectable viral RNA and duration of fever significantly reduced. No serious adverse events.
    5/27
    Meta
    Early Risch, American Journal of Epidemiology, kwaa093, 27 May 2020, doi:10.1093/aje/kwaa093 (Peer Reviewed) (meta analysis - not included in the study count) Early Outpatient Treatment of Symptomatic, High-Risk Covid-19 Patients that Should be Ramped-Up Immediately as Key to the Pandemic Crisis
    Five studies, including two controlled clinical trials, have demonstrated significant outpatient treatment efficacy.
    5/25
    Negative
    Late Ip et al., medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2020.05.21.20109207 (Preprint) Hydroxychloroquine and Tocilizumab Therapy in COVID-19 Patients - An Observational Study
    Retrospective study of late stage use on 2,512 hospitalized patients showing no significant differences in associated mortality for patients receiving any HCQ during the hospitalization (HR, 0.99 [95% CI, 0.80-1.22]..
    5/22
    Positive
    (advisory)
    PEP, PrEP ICMR, Indian Council of Medical Research (Advisory) (not included in the study count) Revised advisory on the use of Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) as prophylaxis for SARS-CoV-2 infection
    Healthcare workers on HCQ prophylaxis less likely to get COVID. Significant dose-response relationship. Extends recommended HCQ prophylaxis to asymptomatic household contacts of cases and fron..
    5/22
    Retracted
    Late Mehra et al., The Lancet, May 22, 2020, doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(20)31180-6 (Peer Reviewed) Hydroxychloroquine or chloroquine with or without a macrolide for treatment of COVID-19: a multinational registry analysis
    Incorrect at first read (implausible death, ventilation, and population numbers). This paper was retracted.
    5/20
    Meta
    (negative)
    Late Chacko et al., medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2020.05.14.20101774 (Preprint) (meta analysis - not included in the study count) Hydroxychloroquine in COVID-19: A systematic review and meta-analysis
    Meta analysis not seeing a significant effect other than time to resolution of chest CT. Limited by heterogeneous nature of studies, baseline severity varied, most studies have a small sample size, endpoints reported at varying times, dos..
    5/19
    Negative
    Late Singh et al., medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2020.05.12.20099028 (Preprint) Outcomes of Hydroxychloroquine Treatment Among Hospitalized COVID-19 Patients in the United States- Real-World Evidence From a Federated Electronic Medical Record Network
    EHR analysis of 3,372 hospitalized COVID-19 patients not showing a significant difference for mortality or the risk of mechanical ventilation. Subject to the limitations of EHR analysis. Misclassification is possible. Confounding by indic..
    5/18
    Positive
    Late Kim et al., medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2020.05.13.20094193 (Preprint) Treatment Response to Hydroxychloroquine, Lopinavir/Ritonavir, and Antibiotics for Moderate COVID 19: A First Report on the Pharmacological Outcomes from South Korea
    Retrospective of 97 moderate cases. Time to viral clearance significantly shorter for HCQ+antibiotic. Preprint withdrawn pending peer review.
    5/18
    Positive
    Early Ahmad et al., doi:10.1101/2020.05.18.20066902 (Preprint) Doxycycline and Hydroxychloroquine as Treatment for High-Risk COVID-19 Patients: Experience from Case Series of 54 Patients in Long-Term Care Facilities
    54 patients in long term care facilities. 6% death with HCQ+AZ compared to 22% using a naive indirect comparison.
    5/16
    Inconc.
    PrEP Macias et al., medRxiv, 10.1101/2020.05.16.20104141 (Preprint) Similar incidence of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in patients with rheumatic diseases with and without hydroxychloroquine therapy
    Very small retrospective study of rheumatic disease patients, sample size is too small for statistical significance (HCQ 0.5-4.0%, no-HCQ 0.4-2.7%). Confirmed cases were 1 HC
    5/15
    Positive
    Late Yu et al., Sci China Life Sci., 2020 May 15, 1-7, doi:10.1007/s11427-020-1732-2 (Peer Reviewed) Low Dose of Hydroxychloroquine Reduces Fatality of Critically Ill Patients With COVID-19
    Retrospective, 550 critically ill patients. 19% fatality for HCQ versus 47% for non-HCQ.
    5/14
    Negative
    Late Mahévas et al., BMJ 2020, 369, doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.m1844 (Peer Reviewed) Clinical efficacy of hydroxychloroquine in patients with covid-19 pneumonia who require oxygen: observational comparative study using routine care data
    Observational study of 181 patients with advanced disease requiring oxygen showing no benefit for HCQ. Power of study appears too low to support conclusions [1]. None of the 15 patients receiving HC<..
    5/11
    Positive
    Late Davido et al., medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2020.05.05.2008875 (Preprint) Hydroxychloroquine plus azithromycin: a potential interest in reducing in hospital morbidity due to COVID-19 pneumonia (HI-ZY-COVID)?
    Retrospective of 132 hospitalized patients. HCQ+AZ significantly reduces death. Note that due to the controversy, authors withdrew this paper from medRxiv pending peer review.
    5/11
    Negative
    Late Rosenberg et al., JAMA, May 11, 2020, doi:10.1001/jama.2020.8630 (Peer Reviewed) Association of Treatment With Hydroxychloroquine or Azithromycin With In-Hospital Mortality in Patients With COVID-19 in New York State
    Restrospective observational late stage study showing no significant differences but calling for clinical trials. Zervos et al. [1] point out serious limitations that they say should be corrected on the record: patients receiving HC
    5/10
    Positive
    Late Alberici et al., Kidney Int., 98:1, 20-26, July 1, 2020, doi:10.1016/j.kint.2020.04.030 (preprint 5/10) (Peer Reviewed) A report from the Brescia Renal COVID Task Force on the clinical characteristics and short-term outcome of hemodialysis patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection
    Analysis of 94 hemodialysis COVID-19 positive patients. Reduction in death seen with HCQ but p=0.12, OR 0.44 (0.16–1.24).
    5/8
    Positive
    Late Carlucci et al., doi:10.1101/2020.05.02.20080036 (Preprint) Hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin plus zinc vs hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin alone: outcomes in hospitalized COVID-19 patients
    Observational retrospective. Addition of Zinc to HCQ+AZ reduces mortality.
    5/7
    Theory
    Theory Derendorf, H., Int. J. Antimicrobial Agents, 7 May 2020, doi:10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2020.106007 (Peer Reviewed) (Theory) (not included in the study count) Excessive lysosomal ion-trapping of hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin
    Discusses pharmacokinetic properties of HCQ+AZ as a potential underlying mechanism of the observed antiviral effects.
    5/7
    Inconc.
    Late Geleris et al., NEJM, May 7, 2020, doi:10.1056/NEJMoa2012410 (Peer Reviewed) Observational Study of Hydroxychloroquine in Hospitalized Patients with Covid-19
    There appears to be a major error in this paper. Before propensity matching, 38 control patients had hypertension. After propensity matching, 146 patients had hypertension (Table 1). This is not possible. Even if all propensity matched co..
    5/7
    Positive
    (news)
    N/A Sermo (News) (not included in the study count) Sermo reports: COVID-19 treatment trends over 6 weeks and 33,700 interviews: Usage, efficacy and safety perceptions of most-used therapies
    HCQ used by 55% of physicians worldwide for COVID. Survey of 6,150 physicians.
    5/6
    Animal
    Animal Maisonnasse et al., Nature, 2020, doi:10.1038/s41586-020-2558-4 (preprint 5/6) (Peer Reviewed) (not included in the study count) Hydroxychloroquine use against SARS-CoV-2 infection in non-human primates
    Monkey study which reports no effect of HCQ or HCQ+AZ. However, there are actually several signs of effectiveness despite the very small sample sizes and 100% recovery of all treated and contr..
    5/5
    Positive
    Late Membrillo de Novales et al., Preprints 2020, 2020050057, doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0057.v1 (Preprint) Early Hydroxychloroquine Is Associated with an Increase of Survival in COVID-19 Patients: An Observational Study
    166 patients hospitalised with COVID-19, HCQ increased survival 1.4 - 1.8 times when patients admitted in early stages. Early is relative to hospital admission here - all patients relatively serious condition.
    5/5
    Positive
    Early, Late Million et al., Travel Med Infect Dis., 2020 May 5, doi:10.1016/j.tmaid.2020.101738 (Peer Reviewed) Early Treatment of COVID-19 Patients With Hydroxychloroquine and Azithromycin: A Retrospective Analysis of 1061 Cases in Marseille, France
    Retrospective 1061 patients. HCQ+AZ safe and results in a low fatality rate.
    5/5
    Inconc.
    PrEP Gendelman et al., Autoimmunity Reviews, 19:7, July 2020, doi:10.1016/j.autrev.2020.102566 (Peer Reviewed) Continuous Hydroxychloroquine or Colchicine Therapy Does Not Prevent Infection With SARS-CoV-2: Insights From a Large Healthcare Database Analysis
    Very small study of rheumatic disease/autoimmune disorder patients showing no significant difference but with only 3 chronic HCQ patient cases. Only considers people tested at a time when primarily symptomatic cases..
    5/1
    Safety
    N/A Mercuro et al., JAMA Cardiol., May 1, 2020, doi:10.1001/jamacardio.2020.1834 (Peer Reviewed) (not included in the study count) Risk of QT Interval Prolongation Associated With Use of Hydroxychloroquine With or Without Concomitant Azithromycin Among Hospitalized Patients Testing Positive for Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19)
    Study of 90 hospitalized patients given HCQ, 53 also receiving AZ, 53% hypertension, 29% diabetes mellitus, baseline median QTc 473ms for HCQ, and 442ms for HCQ+AZ. Medi..
    5/1
    Safety
    N/A Bessière et al., JAMA Cardiol., May 1, 2020, doi:10.1001/jamacardio.2020.1787 (Peer Reviewed) (not included in the study count) Assessment of QT Intervals in a Case Series of Patients With Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Infection Treated With Hydroxychloroquine Alone or in Combination With Azithromycin in an Intensive Care Unit
    Study of 40 very serious condition ICU patients, 75% required invasive mechanical ventilation, 63% received vasoactive drugs, 50% received other treatments favoring QT prolongation. HCQ with or w/o AZ was given to 4..
    5/2
    Positive
    (news)
    Late Seydi (News) (not included in the study count) Coronavirus: a study in Senegal confirms the effectiveness of hydroxychloroquine
    Preliminary results of Senegal trial with 181 patients showing faster recovery with HCQ, and even faster recovery with HCQ+AZ.
    4/30
    Positive
    Early Meo et al., Eur. Rev. Med. Pharmacol. Sci. 2020, 24 (8), 4539-4547, doi:10.26355/eurrev_202004_21038 (Peer Reviewed) Efficacy of chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine in the treatment of COVID-19
    Analysis of COVID-19 and malaria, finding that COVID-19 is highly pandemic in countries where malaria is least pandemic, and vice versa, suggesting that CQ/HCQ (widely used for malaria) are pr..
    4/29
    Safety
    N/A Saleh et al., Circulation: Arrhythmia and Electrophysiology, doi:10.1161/CIRCEP.120.008662 (Peer Reviewed) The Effect of Chloroquine, Hydroxychloroquine and Azithromycin on the Corrected QT Interval in Patients with SARS-CoV-2 Infection
    201 hospitalized patients. No serious side effects of HCQ. No instances of Torsade de pointes, or arrhythmogenic death were reported. They report that although use of these medications resulted in QT prolongation, c..
    4/25
    In Vitro
    In Vitro Andreani et al., Microbial Pathogenesis, doi:/10.1016/j.micpath.2020.104228 (Peer Reviewed) (In Vitro) (not included in the study count) In vitro testing of combined hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin on SARS-CoV-2 shows synergistic effect
    HCQ and AZ has a synergistic effect in vitro on SARS-CoV-2 at concentrations compatible with that obtained in human lung.
    4/24
    Positive
    Early Ashraf et al., medRxiv doi:10.1101/2020.04.20.20072421.t (Preprint) COVID-19 in Iran, a comprehensive investigation from exposure to treatment outcomes
    100 patients. HCQ improved clinical outcome.
    4/21
    Positive
    Early Izoulet M., SSRN, doi:10.2139/ssrn.3575899 (Preprint) Countries which Primarily Use Antimalarial Drugs As COVID-19 Treatment See Slower Dynamic of Daily Deaths
    Compares the dynamics of daily deaths in the 10 days following the 3rd death in countries using and not using [H]CQ, showing dramatically lower death in [H]CQ countries. This paper does not at..
    4/21
    Negative
    Late Magagnoli et al., Med (2020), doi:10.1016/j.medj.2020.06.001 (preprint 4/21) (Peer Reviewed) Outcomes of hydroxychloroquine usage in United States veterans hospitalized with Covid-19
    Retrospective 368 hospitalized patients, no significant reduction in mortality or the need for mechanical ventilation with HCQ or HCQ+AZ. Study notes HCQ was more likely..
    4/17
    Positive
    PEP Lee at al., Int. J. Antimicrob. Agents, 2020, Apr 17, doi:10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2020.105988 (Peer Reviewed) Can Post-Exposure Prophylaxis for COVID-19 Be Considered as an Outbreak Response Strategy in Long-Term Care Hospitals?
    Post exposure prophylaxis of 211 high-risk people after major exposure event in a long term care hospital, showing no positive cases after 14 days.
    4/16
    Negative
    Late Borba et al., JAMA Network Open, doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.8857 (Peer Reviewed) Chloroquine diphosphate in two different dosages as adjunctive therapy of hospitalized patients with severe respiratory syndrome in the context of coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) infection: Preliminary safety results of a randomized, double-blinded, phase IIb clinical trial (CloroCovid-19 Study)
    Increased incidence of prolonged QT and death in high dose treatment arm. Patients >75 only enrolled in high dose arm, age of high dose arm significantly higher than low dose arm (p=0.02). Very sick at baseline, 43% in ICU, 88.9% on respi..
    4/15
    Positive
    Early Esper et al., Prevent Senior Institute, São Paulo, Brazil (Preprint) Empirical treatment with hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin for suspected cases of COVID-19 followed-up by telemedicine
    636 patients. HCQ+AZ reduced hospitalization 79% when used within 7 days (65% overall). Non-randomized.
    4/14
    Negative
    Late Tang et al., BMJ 2020, 369, doi:10.1136/bmj.m1849 (Peer Reviewed) Hydroxychloroquine in patients with COVID-19: an open-label, randomized, controlled trial
    150 patients very late stage RCT. No significant difference. More symptomatic relief with HCQ. No safety concerns of HCQ. Treatment very late, average 16.6 days after symptom onset. Data favor..
    4/13
    Positive
    Late Gao et al., Biosci Trends, May 21, 2020, 14:2, 156-158, doi:10.5582/bst.2020.03072, Epub Apr 13, 2020 (Peer Reviewed) Update on Use of Chloroquine/Hydroxychloroquine to Treat Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19)
    Increasing evidence from completed clinical studies shows CQ and HCQ effective (HCQ more effective).
    4/12
    Negative
    Late Barbosa et al., Preprint (Preprint) Clinical outcomes of hydroxychloroquine in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 : a quasi-randomized comparative study
    Small retrospective study with 63 patients (32 treated with HCQ), showing no effectiveness, however the baseline state of each arm significantly differs. This preprint was submitted to NEJM but has not been publishe..
    4/11
    Positive
    Early Gautret et al., Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease, doi:10.1016/j.tmaid.2020.101663 (Peer Reviewed) Clinical and microbiological effect of a combination of hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin in 80 COVID-19 patients with at least a six-day follow up: A pilot observational study
    Pilot study suggesting improvement with HCQ+AZ and recommending further study.
    4/10
    Meta
    (negative)
    Late Lover, medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2020.03.22.20040949 (Preprint) (meta analysis - not included in the study count) Quantifying treatment effects of hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin for COVID-19: a secondary analysis of an open label non-randomized clinical trial (Gautret et al, 2020)
    Secondary analysis of Gautret et al. showing "modest to no impact of HCQ treatment, with more significant effects from [HCQ+AZ]".
    4/1
    Positive
    Late Huang et al., Journal of Molecular Cell Biology, Volume 12, Issue 4, April 2020, 322–325, doi:10.1093/jmcb/mjaa014 (Peer Reviewed) Treating COVID-19 with Chloroquine
    22 patients. All CQ patients discharged by day 14 versus 50% of Lopinavir/Rotinavir patients. Symptom onset to treatment 2.5 days for CQ vs. 6.5 days for Lopinavir/Rotinavir.
    3/31
    Positive
    Late Chen et al., medRxiv doi:10.1101/2020.03.22.20040758 (Preprint) Efficacy of hydroxychloroquine in patients with COVID-19: results of a randomized clinical trial
    62 patients. RCT showing significantly faster recovery with HCQ. 13% progressed to severe cases in the control group, versus 0% for the treatment group. Significant improvement seen in pneumonia on chest CT for 61% ..
    3/31
    In Vitro
    In Vitro Clementi et al., Front. Microbiol., 10 July 2020, doi:10.3389/fmicb.2020.01704 (preprint 3/31) (Peer Reviewed) (In Vitro) (not included in the study count) Combined Prophylactic and Therapeutic Use Maximizes Hydroxychloroquine Anti-SARS-CoV-2 Effects in vitro
    In vitro study, not included in the study count or percentages, showing greater inhibition for combined pre and post-exposure treatment for Vero E6 and Caco-2 cells.
    3/28
    Negative
    Late Molina et al., Médecine et Maladies Infectieuses, 50:4, June 2020, 10.1016/j.medmal.2020.03.006 (preprint 3/28) (Letter) No evidence of rapid antiviral clearance or clinical benefit with the combination of hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin in patients with severe COVID-19 infection
    11 patients with severe cases. No evidence of benefit for HCQ.
    3/26
    Positive
    (news)
    Late Zhong Nanshan (钟南山) (News) (not included in the study count) Efficacy and safety of chloroquine for treatment of COVID-19. An open-label, multi-center, non-randomized trial
    197 patients. HCQ effective. Viral RNA negative in 95.9% versus 79.6% control. Median time to negative tests 3 days versus 9 days for control.
    3/24
    Theory
    Theory Pagliano et al., Clin. Infect. Dis., 2020 Mar 24, doi:10.1093/cid/ciaa320 (Peer Reviewed) (Theory) Is Hydroxychloroquine a Possible Post-Exposure Prophylaxis Drug to Limit the Transmission to Health Care Workers Exposed to COVID19?
    CQ and HCQ inhibit replication at early stages of infection, no similar effect reported for other drugs which are only able to interfere after cell infection. Large volume of existing data on ..
    3/23
    Theory
    Theory Hu et al., Nature Nanotechnology, 15, 247–249, 2020, doi:10.1038/s41565-020-0674-9 (Peer Reviewed) (Theory) (not included in the study count) Insights from nanomedicine into chloroquine efficacy against COVID-19
    CQ is known in nanomedicine research for the investigation of nanoparticle uptake in cells, and may have potential for the treatment of COVID-19.
    3/21
    Positive
    (advisory)
    PrEP ICMR, Indian Council of Medical Research (Advisory) (not included in the study count) Advisory on the use of hydroxy-chloroquine as prophylaxis for SARS-CoV-2 infection
    Recommends HCQ for prophylaxis in asymptomatic healthcare workers as found effective in-vitro and in-vivo.
    3/20
    Positive
    (news)
    Late Hu et al., Shanghai Combined Task Force on COVID-19 (News) (not included in the study count) Shanghai Experience of COVID-19 Management
    Clinical studies of HCQ with 184 cases and 21 hospitals show HCQ is effective.
    3/18
    In Vitro
    In Vitro Liu et al., Cell Discovery 6, 16 (2020), doi:10.1038/s41421-020-0156-0 (Peer Reviewed) (In Vitro) (not included in the study count) Hydroxychloroquine, a less toxic derivative of chloroquine, is effective in inhibiting SARS-CoV-2 infection in vitro
    HCQ effective in vitro and less toxic than CQ. In addition to direct antiviral activity, HCQ is a safe and successful anti-inflammatory agent that has been used extensiv..
    3/17
    Positive
    Early Gautret et al., Int. J. of Antimicrobial Agents, 17 March 2020, doi:10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2020.105949 (Peer Reviewed) Hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin as a treatment of COVID-19: results of an openlabel non-randomized clinical trial
    HCQ significantly associated with viral load reduction / elimination, enhanced with AZ.
    3/17
    Review
    N/A Sahraei et al., Int. J. Antimicrobial Agents, April 2020, 55:4, doi:10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2020.105945 (Peer Reviewed) (not included in the study count) Aminoquinolines against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine
    Discussion of mechanisms of action, CQ vs. HCQ, early studies, safety.
    3/13
    Review
    N/A Todaro and Rigano (Preprint) (not included in the study count) An Effective Treatment for Coronavirus (COVID-19)
    Discussion of existing research, treatment guidelines, and mechanisms of action for CQ and HCQ, recommending use.
    3/12
    Theory
    Theory Devaux et al., International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents, doi:10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2020.105938 (Peer Reviewed) (Theory) (not included in the study count) New insights on the antiviral effects of chloroquine against coronavirus: what to expect for COVID-19?
    Discusses mechanisms of CQ interference with the SARS-CoV-2 replication cycle.
    3/10
    Meta
    (positive)
    N/A Cortegiani et al., J. Crit. Care, June 2020, 57:279-283, doi:10.1016/j.jcrc.2020.03.005, Epub Mar 10, 2020 (Peer Reviewed) (meta analysis - not included in the study count) A Systematic Review on the Efficacy and Safety of Chloroquine for the Treatment of COVID-19
    Review of six articles and 23 ongoing clinical trials in China recommending research and clinical use adhering to MEURI.
    3/9
    In Vitro
    N/A Yao et al., Clin. Infect. Dis., 2020 Mar 9, doi:10.1093/cid/ciaa237 (Peer Reviewed) (not included in the study count) In Vitro Antiviral Activity and Projection of Optimized Dosing Design of Hydroxychloroquine for the Treatment of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)
    HCQ is more potent than CQ in vitro for inhibiting SARS-CoV-2. Simulates HCQ concentration in lung fluid and provides dosing recommendations.
    3/6
    Negative
    Late Chen et al., J. Zhejiang University (Med Sci), doi:10.3785/j.issn.1008-9292.2020.03.03 (Peer Reviewed) A pilot study of hydroxychloroquine in treatment of patients with common coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19)
    30 moderate hospitalized cases, all recovered. Time to RNA negative comparable. Less frequent radiological progression with HCQ but not statistically significant. One HCQ patient developed to ..
    3/4
    Positive
    Late Colson et al., Int J. Antimicrob Agents, doi: 10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2020.105932. Epub 2020 Mar 4. (Peer Reviewed) Chloroquine and Hydroxychloroquine as Available Weapons to Fight COVID-19
    Recommending CQ and HCQ for COVID-19 based on 20 clinical studies in China and a strong rationale for use.
    2/20
    Positive
    Late Jiang et al., Chin. J. Tuberc. Respir. Dis., 2020, 43, doi:10.3760/cma.j.issn.1001-0939.2020.0019 (Peer Reviewed) Expert Consensus on Chloroquine Phosphate for the Treatment of Novel Coronavirus Pneumonia
    Early trials in China show CQ results in shorter hospital stays and improved patient outcomes.
    2/19
    Positive
    Late Gao et al., BioScience Trends, 2020, doi:10.5582/bst.2020.01047 (Peer Reviewed) Breakthrough: Chloroquine phosphate has shown apparent efficacy in treatment of COVID-19 associated pneumonia in clinical studies
    Results from 15 clinical trials in China showing CQ is effective.
    2/17
    Positive
    (news)
    Late Sun Yanrong, deputy head of the China National Center for Biotechnology Development (News) (not included in the study count) Antimalarial drug confirmed effective on COVID-19
    HCQ under clinical trials in >10 hospitals in China and has shown fairly good efficacy.
    2/4
    In Vitro
    In Vitro Wang et al., Cell Res. 30, 269–271, doi:L10.1038/s41422-020-0282-0 (Peer Reviewed) (In Vitro) (not included in the study count) Remdesivir and chloroquine effectively inhibit the recently emerged novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) in vitro
    In vitro study, not included in the study count or percentages. Remdesivir and CQ potently blocked virus infection in vitro.
    2014
    In Vitro
    In Vitro de Wilde et al., Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, Jul 2014, 58:8, 4875-4884, doi:10.1128/AAC.03011-14 (Peer Reviewed) (In Vitro) (not included in the study count) Screening of an FDA-Approved Compound Library Identifies Four Small-Molecule Inhibitors of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Replication in Cell Culture
    CQ inhibits SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, and HCoV-229E-GFP replication in the low-micromolar range.
    2012
    Animal
    Animal Yan et al., Cell Research, 23, 300–302, doi:10.1038/cr.2012.165 (Peer Reviewed) (not included in the study count) Anti-malaria drug chloroquine is highly effective in treating avian influenza A H5N1 virus infection in an animal model
    CQ, a known autophagy inhibitor that is in clinical use, can efficiently ameliorate acute lung injury and dramatically improve the survival rate in mice infected with live avian influenza A H5N1 virus.
    2009
    Animal
    Animal Keyaerts et al., Antimicrob. Agents Chemother, August 2009, 53(8), doi:0.1128/AAC.01509-08 (Peer Reviewed) (not included in the study count) Antiviral Activity of Chloroquine against Human Coronavirus OC43 Infection in Newborn Mice
    CQ inhibits HCoV-OC43 replication in HRT-18 cells. A lethal HCoV-OC43 infection in newborn C57BL/6 mice can be treated with CQ acquired transplacentally or via maternal milk. The highest survi..
    2008
    In Vitro
    In Vitro Kono et al., Antiviral Research, 77:2, February 2008, 150-152, 10.1016/j.antiviral.2007.10.011 (Peer Reviewed) (In Vitro) (not included in the study count) Inhibition of human coronavirus 229E infection in human epithelial lung cells (L132) by chloroquine: Involvement of p38 MAPK and ERK
    CQ significantly decreased viral replication of HCoV-229E at concentrations lower than in clinical usage. CQ affects the activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and extracell..
    2006
    In Vitro
    In Vitro Savarino et al., Lancet Infect. Dis., doi:10.1016/S1473-3099(06)70361-9 (Peer Reviewed) (In Vitro) (not included in the study count) New insights into the antiviral effects of chloroquine
    Update to 2003 paper, not included in the study count or percentages. Hypothesis of CQ inhibiting SARS replication has been confirmed in two in-vitro studies. CQ affected an early stage of SAR..
    2005
    In Vitro
    In Vitro Vincent et al., Virol. J. 2:69, 2005, doi:10.1186/1743-422X-2-69 (Peer Reviewed) (In Vitro) (not included in the study count) Chloroquine is a potent inhibitor of SARS coronavirus infection and spread
    In vitro study, SARS-CoV-1, not included in the study count or percentages. CQ has strong antiviral effects on SARS CoV infection when cells treated either before or after exposure, suggesting prophylactic and treat..
    2004
    In Vitro
    In Vitro Keyaerts et al., Biochem. Biophys. Res. Comm., 323:1, 8 October 2004, doi:10.1016/j.bbrc.2004.08.085 (Peer Reviewed) (In Vitro) (not included in the study count) In vitro inhibition of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus by chloroquine
    In vitro study, SARS-CoV-1, not included in the study count or percentages. IC50 of CQ for antiviral activity (8.8) is significantly lower than cytostatic activity CC50 (261.3), selectivity index of 30. IC50 for inh..
    2003
    Theory
    Theory Savarino et al., Lancet Infect. Dis., doi:10.1016/S1473-3099(03)00806-5 (Peer Reviewed) (Theory) (not included in the study count) Effects of chloroquine on viral infections: an old drug against today's diseases
    Not included in the study count or percentages. Discussion/review noting that CQ exerts antiviral effects, inhibiting the replication of several viruses including members of the flaviviruses, retroviruses, and coron..
    1889
    Inconc.
    (news)
    N/A Edwin Wiley Grove (News) (not included in the study count) Laxative Bromo Quinine
    Quinine has been used for respiratory infections since 1889. Not included in the study count or percentages, just as an interesting observation.

     

    Note: In Vitro, Meta, Theory, Safety, Review, News, and Retracted items are not included in the percentages and study count. There is a total of 112 items. Positive/negative effects vary in degree and certainty, please read the papers or descriptions thereof for more details. Every study has some limitations when considered in isolation (for example confounding factors; sub-optimal treatment regimens; dosing regimens that may be too low, too high, or insufficiently account for the long half-life of HCQ; large treatment delays; small sample sizes; lack of focus on severity; reliance on Internet surveys; and patient characteristics very different from the most at-risk population).
     
    Please send us corrections, updates, comments. Please send us any missing papers but check first - almost all submissions to date were already posted.
     
     
    NOTE: If the excuse of mandating masks that "it will not eliminate but greatly reduce the chance to get COVID" is used, why is not the smae reasoning applied to the use of a concoction of HCQ+Zinq+Zithromax? Yet HCQ is banned and masks are not. Science just like law, is never settled. If you question this just ask Einstein.
    • Upvote 2

  2. This is a word document from Politico's website that is too long, 80 pages,  to copy and paste. The demonrats have far surpassed moral reproach so they have to do something like what is below.

     

    2020 Democrat Party Platform (Unverified Draft Copy)

     

    From the first page (The numbers are line numbers as they appear in the document):

     

    DEMOCRATIC NATIONAL CONVENTION LAND ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

    The Democratic National Committee wishes to acknowledge that we gather together to state our 13 values on lands that have been stewarded through many centuries by the ancestors and

    14 descendants of Tribal Nations who have been here since time immemorial.

    15 We honor the communities native to this continent, and recognize that our country was built on

    16 Indigenous homelands.

    17 We pay our respects to the millions of Indigenous people throughout history who have protected

    18 our lands, waters, and animals.

    19

    20 We respectfully acknowledge that we present this Platform at our 2020 Democratic National

    21 Convention on the lands of the Bad River Band of the Lake Superior Tribe of Chippewa Indians,

    22 the Forest County Potawatomi Community, the Ho-Chunk Nation, the Lac Courte Oreilles Band

    23 of Lake Superior Chippewa, the Lac du Flambeau Band of Lake Superior Chippewa, the

    24 Menominee Nation, the Oneida Nation of Wisconsin, the Red Cliff Band of Lake Superior

    25 Chippewa, the St. Croix Chippewa Indians of Wisconsin, the Sokaogon Chippewa Community,

    26 and the Stockbridge-Munsee Community, Band of Mohican Indians.


  3. 9 minutes ago, Shabibilicious said:

     

    Not true....I voted for Reagan in my first eligible election, Bush the elder (once) and GW Bush.....I've always voted for who I thought was the best candidate....I never got hung up on political parties, though that's going to happen this time.  

     

    GO RV, then BV

    And then there are Sugar Plum Fairies dancing in your head at night. And unicorns farting rainbows.


  4. 24 minutes ago, Shabibilicious said:

     

    I would certainly accept the results of the presidential election if somehow Trump manages to win, sans Russian interference.....Though, nowhere is it written that a U.S. President is beyond reproach when it comes to his/her handling of the affairs of the American citizenry, or his treatment of them as human beings.  Question is, can you accept the election if Biden wins?.....or are you one of those civil war advocates who have popped up recently, because they don't respect the U.S. election system if their candidate loses?

     

    GO RV, then BV

    By the way you need to reread your US Constitution as Article 4 Section 4 states

     

    The United States shall guarantee to every State in this Union a Republican Form of Government, and shall protect each of them against Invasion; and on Application of the Legislature, or of the Executive against domestic Violence.

     

    This gives the President every authority to protect citizens in this country against the fascist groups like Antifa who are using violence in their so-called "peaceful protests" aka riots.

     

    Also note the form of government, it doesn't say Democracy, it says a Republican form of government which is governance by the will of the people to represent the people. 

    • Confused 1

  5. 3 minutes ago, Shabibilicious said:

     

    I would certainly accept the results of the presidential election if somehow Trump manages to win, sans Russian interference.....Though, nowhere is it written that a U.S. President is beyond reproach when it comes to his/her handling of the affairs of the American citizenry, or his treatment of them as human beings.  Question is, can you accept the election if Biden wins?.....or are you one of those civil war advocates who have popped up recently, because they don't respect the U.S. election system if their candidate loses?

     

    GO RV, then BV

    The FBI determined there was no "sans Russian influence". So you spin your words to make it look like you accept the election but the words are "you don't accept the election". Done. Enough. I accepted 0bummer and I respect the Office of President of the United States no matter who gets in the office. That is the difference, you only respect the office when it is someone on the left because you don't accept there was no Russian collusion. As you still tout the demoncrat party line. Denial. So you don't accept the election. You haven't accepted the last election so how can you even accept the next. Let's say Biden does win. In four years there will be another election, what happens if your boy/girl doesn't win, what will be the left's issue then? You already used Russian collusion. This isn't about the person it is about the left not having the office and power that that office controls. And therein lies the rub. The person with the R behind the name becomes the focal point taking away from the true agenda and reason. This a KKKommie tactic that Ayres taught to his followers like 0Bumer. I would accept Biden's election results but are we voting for Biden or his handlers? That becomes the question of the day. Between the two Biden is the least mentally fit for office as Reagan proved in his latter years with his Alzheimer's condition. 


  6. The numbers are incorrect and jacked up. How many died not from COVID but from some other affliction but is tallied as a COVID death? 

     

    Quote

    My husband just called me. He left for work, got gas in town. Went into the store, opened door for a nurse going in. He said to her, "no mask"? She rolled her eyes and said, "not after we just sent in 70 unopened tests and they came back positive"! What the hell is going on?- Deborah W. Schneider, Twitter 7:13 AM · Jul 29, 2020


    NYC counted all deaths away from a hospital as a COVID death. Nurses in NYC have come out, long before the Capitol Hill presser by the doctors, and they have done it on Youtube but Youtube have taken these videos down as fast as they have gone up. 

     

    Individuals in Florida are reporting that they have received letters for testing  positive for COVID but never took the test to determine if they were infected. 

     

    The CDC, recently, rolled back the numbers for COVID deaths, thus admitting the numbers were false in the fire rst place.

     

    Hotspots are only occurring in certain places that will carry weight with the 2020 election. And to top this off the new talking point on the demoncrat side is that because black people are affected more than any other group of people, they should be allowed to mail in their votes. Repubes are beginning to go along with this narrative in order to get rid of Trump.

     

    Teachers who fear getting COVID have been seen at rallies, protests and riots WITHOUT wearing masks. Wouldn't it make America Great Again if it were realized that home-schooling turned out better than in-person schooling? The other factor in this is that teachers of higher learning have maintained that degrees from online schools are weaker than in-person schools. Wouldn't it be funny that these teachers were forced to find out that online school degrees are not only stronger than inperson school degrees but employable skills are retained much more than at inperson schools? So what is the reason for teachers not going back when those under 40 are exponentially less likely to contract COVID-19.

     

    The study to show how average consumer masks are ineffective against COVID, due the size of the virus, smaller than 125 microns,  being smaller than the pores of the mask, was retracted in favor of studies that show the opposite. 

     

    How the HCQ has systematically banned in the USA as an early treatment choice not by the AMA but by politicians leading to the fact there is something else driving the reason for the bans and its not because of COVID.

     

    How the second spike did not come in the Fall like which was projected but came in June/July. And now Dr. Fraudci is promoting the use of GOGGLES in addition to the masks.

     

    How early reports of the origins of COVID were that it was man-made and weaponized but that was suppressed very early on (Jan 2020) and slowly the reports have trickled out that the initial reporting that this was a man-made weaponized virus were ultimately true. And how the virus got into the Hands of the Chinese through a Chinese scientist was true.

     

    How the COVID pandemic became a godsend for those against Trump but has turned into a nightmare for them but since they are committed they are forced to continue with the game plan. A game plan that was supposed to play out by July 4th but because not seeing the results as expected, created an "early second wave" of the pandemic.

     

    This whole thing has been contrived by man to be implemented as a way to cause fear and control the masses as a study once discovered that Americans and Europeans feared a bioweapon attack as much or greater than they did a nuclear attack because it was more likely a bioweapon attack would occur in their minds. 

     

    This whole pandemic is nothing but fear used to control the masses in America and in Europe. It is being used to promote governments as the people's only solution and to destroy capitalism and a free market system. Yet it is the private industry sector contracted by governments that will come up with the eventual vaccine for the China Virus. How ironic.    

     

     

     

     

    • Thanks 1
    • Upvote 3

  7. 3 hours ago, Shabibilicious said:

     

    It's just so simple...you could do the patriotic (Trump's words) thing and wear a mask, secure your goods and services, and go about your day unfettered....or you could go the other route and whine about being a victim of out of control employed children....You made your choice, so enjoy the spoils of your store visit follies.

     

    GO RV, then BV 

    So you are saying you could accept the election results, since questioning an election is a threat to democracy (Hitlary's words) and accept Trump as your duly elected President. Or you could go the fascist route and spin and play word games and attack people through insinuation and when they attack back feign that you took the high road. 

    • Upvote 1

  8. You have also never forgotten a thing a day in your life. Yeah you are better than maybe an amoeba but not anyone or anything else. I didn't whine. I used it as an example to start a discussion. Unlike you, while others have talked about that, you have consistently attacked me. You aren't about the topic you are about attacking people on here. And that is why you will always be what I have said you are. And to think that you are part of the dinarvets staff. Bah!

    • Confused 1

  9. The Blue Turban King hasn't entered into Foix yet.

     

    Quatrain 9:73
    The Blue Turban King entered into Foix,
    And he will reign less than an evolution of Saturn:
    The White Turban King Byzantium heart banished,
    Sun, Mars and Mercury near Aquarius.

     

    Quatrain 8:77
    The antichrist very soon annihilates the three,
    Twenty-seven years his war will last:
    The unbelievers dead, captive, exiled,
    With blood, human bodies, water and red hail covering the earth.

     

     

    Quatrain 6:24
    Mars and the scepter will be found conjoined
    Under Cancer calamitous war:
    Shortly afterwards a new King will be anointed,
    One who for a long time will pacify the earth.

    • Thanks 2
    • Confused 3

  10. 14 hours ago, Shabibilicious said:

     

    I actually put my mask on when I'm rolling up to pay at a drive-thru....it's a common sense thing, no instructions necessary.  I don't out looking for angles to exagerate or axes axes to grind.  

     

    GO RV, then BV 

    So in other words you are better than everyone else? Is that what you are saying because no where in the description about the people going through the drive thru window being served by the power tripping fascist employees was the name Shabbs mentioned. Nor was it said that I went through the drive thru.  Maybe instead of being braggadocious that you work on your reading comprehension and retention skills. But its always about "me, me, me" right? And for the record I am not talking about myself as the "me" in that previous sentence.

    • Upvote 1

  11. Man there is the potential for a debate on "potential conflated with manifestation (or capability versus actual being)" here somewheres....

     

    anyways...back to mask nazis or brownshirt mask critters handing their arses to those not wearing masks... ah shucks lets just call it what it truly is fascist people deriding others for not wearing a mask... lol

    • Thanks 1
    • Upvote 1

  12. 9 hours ago, Shabibilicious said:

     

    Even an amoeba would be genius enough to figure out the proper mask wearing technique. 

     

    GO RV, then BV 

    Geeze Shabs what are you insinuating...please do say it outright.

     

    And if you think I got my arse handed to me by a bunch of yucks getting off on their power trip you missed the point of them not requiring the mask at the drive thru window, which by the way is not within the 6 feet social distancing mandate. Nor did you get the point of me putting the mask "over" my mouth and nose as was yelled at me. But then again amoeba's would be genius and have more intellect to figure that one out. 


  13. Today's grilling of AG Barr by the House Judiciary Committee, Rep Eric Fartwell

    said something interesting during this grilling

     

    HE stated that Trump has a two-tiered system of justice. One for his cronies and himself and the other for everyone else.

     

    But what is the real two-tier system in place:

     

    The 5 Biggest Controversies of Eric Holder's Term as Attorney General

    From Fast and Furious to the 9/11 mastermind, Holder's most-disputed moves.

    By
     ERIN DOOLEY, NOAH WEILAND, VERONICA STRACQUALURSI and KIRSTEN APPLETON
    September 25, 2014, 5:15 PM
    6 min read
     
    AP_Eric_Holder_Justice_emd_20140925_16x9
    Image Icon
    U.S. Attorney General Eric Holder delivers a keynote speech at New York University's law school, Sept. 23, 2014, in New York.
    U.S. Attorney General Eric Holder delivers a keynote speech at New York University's law school, Sept. 23, 2014, in New York.undefined Julio Cortez / AP Photo

    — -- intro: Almost as soon as he was confirmed, it was clear that Attorney General Eric Holder’s tenure would be beset by controversy.

    In February 2009, his provocative statement -- “in things racial we have always been and I believe continue to be, in too many ways, essentially a nation of cowards” -- roiled many.

    As one of President Obama’s longest-serving and most-trusted advisers, Holder, who today announced he would step down from the post he has held for five-and-a-half years, has long been a favorite punching bag for the right.

    Here’s a look at the five biggest controversies during his time at the Justice Department.

     

    As one of president Obama’s longest-serving and most-trusted advisers, Holder has long been a favorite punching bag for the right.

     

    Here’s a look at the five biggest controversies during his time at the Justice Department:

    quicklist:

     

    1. 9/11 MASTERMINDSIf Holder had his way, Khalid Sheikh Mohammed, the mastermind of the Sept. 11 terrorist attacks, might now be on death row. But staunch political opposition to Holder's plan to prosecute Mohammed in a Manhattan civilian court prevented the attorney general from carrying out what he thought was a “highly-detailed, formidable case” in a federal court just blocks from Ground Zero, which would have intensified the trial even more. Instead, Mohammed is still waiting in Guantanamo Bay after Holder shifted his case to military courts at the detention center in 2011, bowing to legislation that bars Guantanamo inmates from traveling to the U.S.

     

    He told Yahoo News this week in an interview, “I will say that if my recommendation had been followed, Khalid Sheikh Mohammed and his confederates would be on death row right now. Right now.”

    media: 25755241

     

    2 :MONITORING THE PRESS:Among a number of controversies during his tenure involving journalists, Holder had to temper public anger in 2013 over the Justice Department’s seizure of Associated Press phone records resulting from an AP article in May 2012.

    Holder believed the article on a terrorist plot in Yemen threatened American security, and defended the Justice Department’s need to vet the AP correspondence.

     

    The president of The Associated Press claimed he kept the story from publication until government officials had confirmed there were no national security concerns that could have resulted from the article, and White House secretary Jay Carney insisted President Obama remained a faithful guardian of First Amendment rights.

     

    Holder’s argument came just years after dropping charges against former Justice Department lawyer Thomas Tamm, who leaked details of a Bush administration wiretapping program to the New York Times. Also in 2013, Holder denied attempting to prosecute journalists after reports revealed the Justice Department was monitoring Fox News reporter James Rosen following a story he published in 2009 on Iran. media: 25756073

    OPERATION FAST AND FURIOUS text:In a gunrunning sting gone awry, the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives lost an estimated 1,400 weapons in Mexico -- including two guns that resurfaced at the murder scene of U.S. Border Patrol agent Brian Terry in December 2010. The following May, Holder, who technically oversees ATF, testified before the House Judiciary Committee that he had only known about the sting, dubbed “Operation Fast & Furious,” for a few weeks. But after investigators uncovered memos on Fast & Furious sent to Holder in July 2010, congressional Republicans cried foul. According to the Justice Department, however, Holder never read the memos – and an IG report later “found no evidence that Department or ATF staff informed Holder about Operation Fast and Furious prior to 2011.”

    Holder repeatedly denied a DOJ cover-up, saying only, “This operation was flawed in concept, as well as in execution.” Bolstered by Obama’s assertion of executive privilege, which prevented future prosecution, Holder refused to turn over documents related to Fast and Furious, infuriating Congressional Republicans, who accused him of concealing administration failures. He was held in contempt of Congress in June 2012, marking the first time an attorney general has been held in criminal contempt. media: 25756744

    quicklist:4 title:*** MARRIAGE text:In 2011, the attorney general said he won’t defend Defense of Marriage Act (DOMA) which rules that federal interpretation of “marriage” applies only to heterosexual couples. Last year, Holder told ABC News, “From my perspective, [*** marriage] is really the latest civil-rights issue.” So when six state attorneys general said they would not defend laws that ban *** marriage, Holder did not step in. Instead, Holder said they didn’t have to defend the laws if they believed they were unconstitutional.

    Holder’s handling of the matter did not sit well with former Justice Department officials, who believed the actions of Obama’s attorney general were anti-democratic. A U.S. attorney general, as head of the Justice Department, is responsible for enforcing federal laws. One critic of Holder, former Virginia Solicitor General William H. Hurd said, “These are important issues, but the job of an attorney general is not to act as a judge and decide them. His job is to act as an advocate and defend the laws enacted through the democratic process.” media: 25756272

    quicklist:5 title:DRUG CRIMES text:In 2013, Holder modified the Justice Department’s sentencing policy for low-level, drug-related crimes out of belief that they were discriminatory and destabilizing.

    “Let’s be honest: Some of the enforcement priorities that we have set have had a destabilizing effect on particular communities ... largely poor and of color, and [have been] applied inappropriately,” Holder said in a speech.

    In the past, mandatory minimum sentences were implemented to discourage drug use and reduce racially-biased sentences. Holder mandated the modification so that low-level, non-violent drug offenders with no ties to gangs or cartels would no longer be charged with offenses that “impose draconian, mandatory” sentences, and would instead be sentenced on an individual basis. Since the modification last year, the federal prison population dropped by 4,800 ... the first time the prison population declined since 1980. media: 25757773

    • Thanks 1

  14. On 7/27/2020 at 7:50 AM, Shabibilicious said:

     

    Hmmm.....seems to me, only one of us got his arse handed to him by a bunch of kids following the rules.  My slightly above intellect would have driven the appropriate decision making to at least procure the goods I entered a store for.  As always, just my opinion. 

     

    GO RV, then BV 

    IF you have a slightly above intellect an amoeba would be considered a genius by that reasoning.  

    • Thanks 1

  15. On 7/25/2020 at 5:03 PM, caddieman said:


    Yep because the radical right has NEVER PHOTOSHOPPED a damn thing..........LMFAO!

     

    Fox News removes doctored images of George Floyd protests after being publicly corrected

    https://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/americas/fox-news-fake-image-photo-george-floyd-protests-seattle-a9565061.html

     

    Are these rioters even rioting for George Floyd anymore? I mean it happened in Minnesota and yet we hear about the riots (officially declared a riot 22 times in Portland, almost half the days they have been "protesting"). So the radical alt-left's answer is to let the motha burn? Socialism and KKKommunism and Mao Tse Dong rhetoric combined with Alphabet soup loopy dee loop?   Funny how they want to erase history but are repeating history yet know nuting of history

    and what was the final outcome of KKKomunism and socialism throughout the world. Like NFAC now calling for a new country within a country like the Nation of Islam called for one in 1937. Chernobyl has land available for those who want to start a new country.

    • Thanks 1
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  16. Lisa have you ever felt like Wakko ....wait for it....

     

     

    2 hours ago, jake21 said:

    We'll all be right here a year from now wondering why it still hasn't happened and god forbid, if Biden steals the White House, we mind as well sell our dinar because we're screwed 

     

     

    And Lisa can you? Just can you....

     

     

     

    But hey lets just ...

     

     

    • Thanks 1
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    • Upvote 3

  17. On 7/22/2020 at 4:06 PM, caddieman said:

    Research shows wearing masks can significantly reduce risk of coronavirus transmission

    In New York, for instance, the daily new infection rate dropped by 3% per day after a policy requiring that people wear face masks or coverings in public took effect, the researchers found.  Overall, the researchers estimated that requirements related to face masks and coverings "significantly reduced the number of infections … by over 78,000 in Italy from April 6 to May 9 and over 66,000 in New York City from April 17 to May 9."https://www.advisory.com/daily-briefing/2020/06/16/mask-covid

     

     

    Face masks may reduce COVID-19 spread by 85%, WHO-backed study suggests

     

    With face masks, the chance of infection or transmission was 3% with a mask compared with 17% without a mask, a reduction of more than 80%. And for eye protection, the chance of infection or transmission was 6% with protection and 16% without.https://www.livescience.com/face-masks-eye-protection-covid-19-prevention.html

     

    Your Mask Cuts Own Risk by 65 Percent

     

    Scientific evidence is clear: Social distancing and wearing masks help prevent people from spreading COVID-19, and masks also protect those who wear them, two UC Davis Health experts said on UC Davis LIVE: COVID-19.

    A range of new research on face coverings shows that the risk of infection to the wearer is decreased by 65 percent, said Dean Blumberg, chief of pediatric infectious diseases at UC Davis Children’s Hospital.https://www.ucdavis.edu/coronavirus/news/your-mask-cuts-own-risk-65-percent/

     

    If everyone wears a mask, 58% of Covid-19 deaths could be prevented by fall, study says

    But that could all change if 95% of people now start wearing masks anytime they’re in public, according to the model. Universal mask usage could prevent nearly 45,500 projected Covid-19-related deaths by Nov. 1, or about a 58% reduction, Vos says.https://www.cnbc.com/2020/07/10/study-face-masks-could-reduce-covid-19-infections-deaths-by-november.html


    I got much more it you want to see them.😷

     

    Funny how the study to prove that masks did not prevent COVID was retracted and subsequently removed.

     

     

    Wonder why that is?

     

    You know what  could have prevented  deaths? Not sending positive COVID patients into Nursing homes.

    There I put it into a font size  you could understand.

     

    • Upvote 1

  18. I have been holding something back in this discussion about those snowflake SJWs that I have not stated previously because I wanted this discussion to highlight the hypocrisy that is inherent in the wearing of mask. Like I said I forgot my mask when I went into the store and then once inside was confronted by a bunch of "woke" SJWs whom others have said were on a power trip.I agree with that assessment. 

     

    Now on to what I was holding back.

     

    So it has been stated in previous posts in this thread some would not wear a mask if they were alone, like mowing the grass or outside walking. What about in a car by yourself? I don't wear a mask when I am by myself in a car and I know a lot of others do not either. See this particular restaurant has a drive-thru window. And as I was walking into the restaurant you can see the window and people in their cars in line placing, waiting and getting their orders. As I noticed the people in the cars with the window down not one of them had a mask on. I know they were all intelligent enough to wear a mask. When they received their food none of them was told to wear a mask.

     

    So it was okay to go through the drive-thru, wait at the drive-thru window, have the same SJWs who yelled at me about wearing a mask hand the non-mask wearing patron their food. It was okay to go through the drive-thru not wearing a mask!

     

    Talk about irony. What just because they were in their car reaching through two windows that there is chance to get the virus? This is hypocrisy in the system. Their woke world only extended to what they have been told. There was no use of critical thinking that if they were required to serve food inside the patron needed a  mask to if they were required to serve food through a drive -thru window the patron would also need a mask. And there is the rub in the ointment.   

     

     

    • Upvote 5

  19. 21 hours ago, caddieman said:


    I agree. If you are outside by yourself, taking a walk, cutting your grass no need whatsoever for a mask. But when you go into public buildings with other people mask up. 

    LA sheriff will fine you $300 if you're not wearing a mask in public this includes cutting your grass or taking a walk.

    Miami to fine people up to $500 if they don't wear masks this includes anyplace outside your front door.

    Massachusetts communities threaten fines of up to $1,000 for not wearing coronavirus masks outside

     

    So outside, walking your dog, walking on the beach, mowing your lawn, etc. now requires you to wear a mask no matter if no one else is around.

     

    A situation you could be fined for is that you are mowing your lawn and no one in the neighborhood is around. Along comes a city worker, by themself,  in their local government pickup truck with all the windows rolled up the air conditioner running and is in a recirculating mode and sees you mowing the grass without a mask. Now you are sent a fine for not wearing a mask. This is not conspiracy it is reality, yesterday.

     

    I can find more like it. 

     

    Even 1% of something fearful to you breeds 100% fear in you.  

     

     

    • Upvote 4

  20. On 7/21/2020 at 12:15 AM, Theseus said:

    I walked into a Panda Express without a mask on. Forgot it in my car. The young people behind the counter said I had to wear a mask. So I walked out to my car, put the mask on over my chin and walked back inside. They started yelling at me. I told them I was "wearing" my mask. Then they said I need to wear it over my nose and mouth. So I scrunched it up and put it on the bridge of my nose. They said nooo! I said it was over my mouth and nose, what is the problem?. I had enough when someone said I was going to give their grandmother the COVID. I asked if she was here and he said no. Then I asked him how the hell could I possibly give it to her. He shrugged his shoulders and left to go to  a better chinese restaurant that actually cooked traditional American based chinese food. I normally don't go to Panda Express. And continue to not go there anymore. As with all the stores that require me to wear a mask. If they

    require me to wear a mask then they should give me one if I forget to wear and since they don't eff them. I know stores that want customers.

     

    49 minutes ago, cranman said:

    You stated you put in on your chin.   You were wrong,  got called out by kids and got upset. End of story.  I'm no fan of the youth of today either.  But you could have handled it better but didn"t.

    That being said, you may want to look up the definition of awsome. You know where I'm heading with this.

    Some reflection of your actions may be needed. I find people who know they were wrong and get called out usually  resort to insulting others peoples ability, to read, comprehend or whatever your are about to say next.  

     

     

     

     

    Like I said you need reading comprehension lessons and work on reading retention. I didn't answer your question  because I answered it already in the original post. So pluh-lease get off your pedestal and join the rest of the world. I handled it perfectly fine. 

     

    You said I was awesome. I said thank you. Or do you not remember typing that?

     

    You seem to be having problems reading and retaining information, do you need to go see a doctor or maybe a psychiatrist?

     

    I reflected on my actions quite well. Had they been nicer it could have gone a different way. So just stop before you further embarrass yourself. You have already been caught trying to make up something. You have been caught saying I was awesome then when I thank you for it try to tell me you never said it (or do I need to show the exact post?). That is just embarrassing. Just stop right now.  What are you going to make up next? 

     

    I also said "I forgot my mask" or do you not read that too?

     

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